1. Firstly, safety measures were taken by putting on laboratory coats, wearing safety goggles and tying long hair back. This was to protect clothing, eyes and to avoid burning as the experiment included dealing with open flames. 2. The equipment needed (as shown and labelled in picture A) was collected. 3. Using a measuring cylinder for each, to be exact with measurements, we measured out 10cm³ of HCl and 10cm³ of NaOH. We used pipettes to ensure we gained the correct amount of solution to put in each cylinder. 4. Both solutions were then poured into the glass beaker. 5. The solution was stirred thoroughly in the glass beaker using a glass rod. 6. The water bath was placed onto the gauze mat to protect it from the Bunsen flame over the Bunsen burner. This was kept at the same heat flow throughout. 7. The solution was poured into the evaporating dish, which was on top of the water bath, so the solution was not in direct contact with the flame. 8. This was left to heat for approx. 25-30 minutes.
9. The solution was then left over the weekend to dry out.
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) + Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) = Sodium Chloride (NaCl) + Water (H2O) (acid + alkali = salt + water)
In conclusion, the same amount of HCl mixed with NaOH forms an ionic bond between the two elements. The ionic bond/electrovalent bond that was formed was that of sodium chloride ‘salt’. The bond made visible salt crystals in the evaporating dish. The ionic bond was held together using electrostatic attraction. This resulted in a sodium chloride compound (producing oppositely charged ions) forming. (Na+ ion and Cl- ion). One electron was transferred from the sodium atom (1s2, 2s2 2p6, 3s1) to the chlorine atom (1s2, 2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p5) and two ions were formed. The ions gained full outer electron shells. The ionic crystals are a giant lattice structure...