Sociology Unit G671

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* Complicit masculinity - the 'new man' that is willing to cook tea, pick up the children from school and put the washing on.

* Subordinate masculinity - the 'gay man'

* Marginalised masculinity - the hegemonic man today. Associated with the working class, as this group of males can't get the typical jobs, mining etc due to loss of industry so they can't fulfil their 'destiny'

Firstly, the family socialises masculinity in a number of ways. A study by Ann Oakley argues that gender socialisation takes place in 4 ways:

* Manipulation - Parents encourage behaviour, which is seen as normal for the child's gender and discourage what is seen as deviant for example, boys are encouraged from an early age to take part in playing football and discouraged from taking part in ballet lessons.

* Canalisation - this involves channelling the child's interests to toys and activities seen as normal for his or her sex. An example of this is boys playing with toy cars and 'action men'

* Verbal appellation - the names that children are called which teaches gender appropriate behaviour for example, "big boys don't cry" and the tone of voice used.

* Different activities - children are encouraged to involve themselves in different activities for example, boys playing together to make a camp.

Although Ann Oakley did her research 30 years ago and is considered out of date, a more recent study by Joanna Smith (1997) reinforces Oakley's points. A recent study also said that the family is stereotypically gendered to males, breadwinners and females, caring roles. (Charles 2002) This shows that boys can learn these roles from looking at their father's behaviour.

Secondly media plays a role in influencing masculinity. There are a range of different Medias, we can actively choose what we watch on the television and what magazines we read, however, to a degree, it is all around us. The adverts that are on
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