Presented to: Anis Alam
The Jat people are a historical Aryan-Scythian tribal group native to the Punjab, Kashmir, Jammu, Uttarkhand, Balochistan, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. The total population of the Jats is 33 million. The regions with significant populations are India and Pakistan. The main languages spoken by the Jats are Punjabi, Urdu, Hindi, Haryanvi and Gujrati. Jats follow three main religions; Islam, Hinduism and Sikhism. Their related ethnic groups are other Indo-Aryan people. On demographics, the Encyclopedia Brittanica states that: "In the early 21st century the Jat constituted about 20 percent of the population of Punjab, nearly 10 percent of the population of Balochistan, Rajasthan, and Delhi, and from 2 to 5 percent of the populations of Sindh, Northwest Frontier, and Uttar Pradesh. The four million Jats of Pakistan are mainly Muslim by faith; the nearly six million Jats of India are mostly divided into two large castes of about equal strength: one Sikh, concentrated in Punjab, the other Hindu." The name Jat has frequently been connected to the names of the Getae and Massagetae, beginning with James Tod in 1829. This suggests that the ultimate origin of the Jat tribal group was in the Indo-Scythian period of about 200 BC to AD 400. G. C. Dwivedi writes in his book ‘The Jats, their role in the Mughal Emprie’, that the Persian Mojmal al-tawarikh mentions Jats and Meds as the descendants of Ham (son of Noah), living in Sind on the banks of the river Bahar. Origins:
The Jats have apparently formed during the centuries following the collapse of the Kushan Empire, during the early medieval period. They are said to be the product of an admixture of Indo-Scythian elements to local Indo-Aryan groups. "An international collaboration led by Manir Ali of the Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, first identified the ‘Jat’ mutation in one of four Pakistani families. Further study amongst Roma populations in Europe showed that the same mutation accounted for nearly half of all cases of PCG [Primary congenital glaucoma] in that community. Manir Ali’s research also confirms the widely accepted view that the Roma originated from the Jat clan of Northern India and Pakistan and not from Eastern Europe as previously believed." There is some evidence connecting the Jats and the Romani people, the descendants of Indo-Aryan groups which emigrated from India towards Central Asia during the medieval period. There are serological similarities shared with several populations that linked the two people in a 1992 study. History
There are very few records concerning Jats prior to the 17th century. There are records of Jat states in Rajasthan (the north Rajasthan region, then known as Jangladesh). It is not known when Jat people established themselves in the Indian desert. By the 4th century they had spread to the Punjab. After this, foreign invaders had to encounter with the Jats of this region. The whole of the region was composed of seven cantons namely Punia, Sihag, Godara, Saran, Beniwal, Johiya and Kaswan. Besides these cantons there were several clans of Jats, simultaneously wrested from Rajput proprietors for instance Bagor, Kharipatta, Mohila or Mehila, K.R. Qanungo writes that when Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sindh, the Kaikan region in Sindh was an independent possession of the Jat people. In addition to frequent interaction with Jats (who for them represented Indians), the first Arab invasions of Persia and Sindh were met by the Jat people. According to Thakur Deshraj and Cunningham, Jat people of the Panwhar clan ruled Umerkot in Sindhprior to Mughal ruler Humayun. The Susthan region in Sindh was ruled by Chandra Ram, a Jat of Hala clan. Chandra Ram lost his kingdom (known as Halakhandi) to the Muslim invaders sent...