Sociology Essay -- Discuss How Far Sociologists Would Agree That in-School Factors Are Responsible for Educational Underachievement?

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Some sociologists believe in-school factors are responsible for educational underachievement because of many reasons such as- subcultures, setting and streaming and Interactionism where teachers label a pupils likely performance which have an impact on that individual which can be in the form of racism. In opposition, some sociologists disagree because there out-of-school factors too such as; material deprivation, cultural deprivation and innate explanation theory. I have to discuss if in-school factors are responsible. On the one hand, sociologists agree that in-school factors are the cause for educational underachievement as subcultures within schools change through anti-school students. This is because several individuals in school ethos may experience peer-pressure or feel intimidated from their teachers and pro-students who make them conform a specific culture that doesn’t value education such as; ‘urban’ or ‘street’. Therefore he/she could underachieve; they have anti-learning attitudes and a bad perspective of the school due to the expected code of behaviour from their teachers, which is failure, even know they may be smart. They start to accept their label as failure and displace the schools norms and values with their own where they bunk school, disrupt lessons and argue with teachers. Another reason is the educational system is unfair. Schools may give same test to all students however the test covers a less range of skills; memory, knowledge and logic. Therefore, some pupils have an advantage. Students who have mixed abilities, are shown as less able to achieve good grades as that test is excluding their best skills. The setting and streaming of a school can also be unfair. Some students are just thrown in lower sets (3,4,5) because of their behaviour rather than their smartness. So, teachers have lower expectations for them and may underestimate their abilities which causes them to underachieve even though they may be bright. The Interactionism...
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