Sociology Essay

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Green Crime
* This is crime(s) against the environment.
* Traditionally criminology focuses on whether a law has been broken – a crime is something that breaks the law. * Green criminology starts from the notion of harm rather than the breaking of law. * Rob White (2008) – subject of criminology is one that harms the physical environment and/or the human and non human animals within it. * The world is a single eco-system. E.g. Atmospheric pollution from industry in one country can turn into acid rain that falls in another. * Accident in the nuclear industry can spread radioactive material over thousands of miles – Chernobyl in Ukraine – 1986 * Beck (1992) argues – today we can provide adequate resources for all – at least in the developed countries. Massive increase in productivity and the technology that sustains it have created new, manufactured risks – dangers which we have not face before. * Many of these risks involve harm to the environment and the consequences to humanity – greenhouse gases from industry leading to global warming. * Like climate change these risks are mainly global rather than local in nature, leading Beck to describe late modern society as ‘global risk society’. * Green crimes can be committed by individuals, businesses and governments, i.e. fly tipping, picking rare flowers and trafficking in endangered animals by individuals, pollution and fly-tipping caused by businesses and pollution, transportation and dump of waste material committed by governments. * Whaling should also be considered as a crime – environmentalists say. * Two views of harm:

* 1) General Nation’s states and transnational corporations – adopt what White (2008) calls an anthropocentric or human centred view of the environmental harm – humans have a right to dominate nature and economic growth comes first. * 2) An ecocentric view sees humans and their environment as interdependent – if something hurts the environment then...
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