Outline some of the ways in which marketization and selection policies may produce differences in educational achievement (12 marks)
Marketization is the policy of introducing market forces of supply and demand into areas run by state, such as education and the National Health Service. The 1988 Education Reform Act began the marketization of education by encouraging competition between school and choice for parents. Marketization brought in a funding formula - that gives a school the same amount of funds for each pupil, Exam league tables -the rank each school according to it’s exam performance and make no allowance for the level of ability of its pupils. For example, secondary school are ranked in terms of what percentage of their pupils succeed in gaining five or more GCSE grades A*-C and finally, competition- among schools to attract pupils. These acts of marketization lead to selection policies. Selection in education is the process of choosing and allocating pupils to a particular school, class steam ECT.
Will Bartlett (1993) argues that marketization leads to popular schools, cream-skimming. This is the selection of higher ability pupils, who gain the best results and cost less to teach. This selection policy may cause differences in educational achievement as the higher ability students would receive better teaching as the better schools would select them as they ‘cost less to teach’. He also argues that marketization leads to popular schools silt-shifting. This is the off-loading of pupils with learning difficulties, who are expensive to teach and get poor results. This too creates differences in educational achievement as it causes lower ability students to be ‘off-loaded’ to less successful schools who could potentially not be able to meet their needs.
The educational triage is a selection process that may cause differences in educational achievement too, created by Gillborn and Youdell. Educational triage is the process whereby schools...
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