Sociology Concepts

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1.Social action is defined as day to day decisions and actions of individuals within the social world. Social actions both influence and are patterned and influenced by social structure. According to Marx's theory, in order for the potential of social action occurring to take place a society must face resistance and revolution. According to Marx's theory societies are already divided into two main groups, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie are the upper class who are owners of capital and exploiters of labor, while the proletariat, or lower class, are the blue collar workers who use their hands or a certain skill to perform some sort of labor. The proletariat usually work and answer to the bourgeoisie. Marx's theory states that a critical element of society is social control and that the social structure is based on the oppression of some people by others. According to Marx's theory the class you are born in is very likely going to be the class you die in. Furthermore, the class that your great grandparents belonged to is more or less going to be the class that your great grandchildren will belong to. Moving from class to class is very rare and is very difficult to accomplish. The only way for class movement is through resistance and or revolution. According to Marx's theory the potential for resistance and revolution is present in all social situations because the less powerful can always, and are very likely to, act against the status quo. Due to the fact that the social structure is so well defined the only way to have any sort of social action is through some sort of radical means. Looking back on history at times where there were two very distinct class structures the only way that the social structure changed was through revolution. For example, the Civil War. Though the Civil War was not fought solely over slavery, slavery was a big issue. The only way the distinct class differences between slaves and slave owners could come to an end was through war and revolution. Without radical resistance and revolution the class structure would have never changed and social action would have never occurred. 2. Social research is never a routine matter. There are so many different variables involved in each study that the same study could be done over and over and the response would differ slightly each and every time. All social research contains variables and when there are variables involved the study cannot be routine. Every detail, no matter how slight, affects the variable and can affect the outcome. This creates a situation that requires a very large attention to detail from the sociologist. Social research measure qualitative data a majority of the time. Qualitative data is data that cannot be assigned real numbers. Instead it is data that is made up of detailed reports of behaviors, quotes from research subjects, and observations of the settings. When researching this data and correlating it, it takes a lot more time and thinking than when doing the same with quantitative data. As a result a sociologist must be very detailed, because the research is never routine. 3.Gender socialization is the process of learning to see oneself as a male or female and learning the roles and expectations associated with that sex group. It is a perfect illustration of the interaction of biological and environmental influences. The biological influences associated with gender socialization refer to the "natural instincts" of the two different sexes and how they are both born with different types of behaviors. For instance, a male, in most cases, is born with a natural attraction towards the female. This attraction gives them a natural ability of wanting to watch over and protect a female. This is a naturally occurring behavior in nearly every male. A female on the other hand is born with the biological influence of being more emotional and caring than a male. This instinct stems from...
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