Sociology and Political Science:
As a mother of social sciences Sociology has close and intimate relationship with all other social science. Hence it has close relationship with political science as well. Their relationship is so close and intimate that led G.E.C. Catlin to remark “Political Science and Sociology are two faces or aspects of the same figure.” Similarly other scholars could not find any difference between the two disciplines. Sociology is a Science of society. It is a science of social groups and social institutions. It is a general science of society. It studies human interaction and inter-relations their conditions and consequences. Political Science is a science of state and Government. It studies power, political processes, political systems, types of government and international relations. It deals with social groups organised under the sovereign of the state. In the words of Paul Junet, “Political Science is that part of social science which treats the foundation of the state and principles of government.” It studies the political activities of man. It only studies the organised society. However their inter-relationship and inter-dependence can be known from interdependence and mutual relationship. Sociology depends on political science. In the words of Morris Ginsberg, “Historically Sociology has its main roots in politics and philosophy of history.” Sociology greatly benefited by the books written by political scientists like Plato, Aristotle and Kautilya such as The Republic, The Politics and Arthasastra respectively. Each and every social problem has a political cause. Political Science is a part of sociology. Hence sociology depends on political science to comprehend itself. To understand different political events sociology takes the help from political science. Sociology to draw it’s conclusions depends on political science. Any change in the political system or nature of power structure brings changes in society. Hence Sociology takes the help of political science to understand the changes in society. Hence both are inter-dependent. Similarly political science also depends on Sociology. Political Science is a part of sociology. To understand the part it is necessary to understand the whole. Almost all political problems has a social cause and for the solution of these political problems political science takes the help of sociology. State frames its rules, regulations and laws on the basis of social customs, tradition and values. Without Sociological background the study of political science will be incomplete. Political Scientists largely benefited by the researches and research methods of the Sociologist. Some consider political science as a branch of Sociology. State is considered as a social group hence is a subject of Sociology. Besides, there are some common topics which are being studied by both the subjects. These topics are War, Propaganda, authority, communal riots and law. With the help of both political science and sociology a new subject comes into existence which is known as political sociology. Some political events like war are also significant social events. Thus both political science and sociology contribute to each other. But inspite of their inter-relationship and inter-dependence both the sciences differ from each other in the following way. Differences:
(1) Sociology is a science of society and social relationship whereas political science is a science of state and government. (2) The scope of sociology is very wide but scope of political science is limited. (3) Sociology is a general science but political science is a special science. (4) Sociology studied organised, unorganized and disorganized society whereas political science studies only politically organised society. (5) Sociology studies the social activities of man whereas political science studies political activities of man. (6) Sociology is a new or young science but political science is an older science....
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