Sociology and Culture Universal Culture

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SOCIOLOGY derived from the word socio comes from the latin word socius which means companion with others and logy comes from the greek word logos which means study of.

AUGUSTE COMTE father of sociology. Make him a pioneer
- used the method of positivism.
- he used techniques in observation, comprehension and experimentation. HARRIET MARTINEAU she translate everything the Comte wrote into English.
She fought for women’s liberation religious toleration emancipation of slaves. HERBERT SPENCER society is like an organism (organismic view) which means society has part that has specific function. EMILE DURKHEIM the behavior of a person must be understood by a context content.

Contribution: study of suicide
i. frustrated suicide(for women)
Ii. Consumated suicide(for men)
Iii. Altruistic suicide(for the goodness of society)
MAX WEBER people need to know the society.
KARL MARX civilization of constant struggle between two classes
i. proletariat(laboring class)
Ii. Bourgeoisie(owners)
Class less (Utopia) where everyone is equal and the same. GEORGE SIMMEL understanding a person is an understanding the society where he belong. FR. VALENTIN MARTIN brought sociology to Philippines (1896)

CULTURE “way of life”. cultivation of land, develop of plants. ELEMENTS
VALUES good, acceptable, desirable (close family ties)
BELIEFS ideas of ones convictions of what is true, existence of things (superstitious, myths, stories)
NORMS unquestionable standards (mannerisms, speech)
LANGUAGE verbal(words), nonverbal(actions, gestures)
FOLKWAYS customs, habits, pattern of people’s behavior (courtship, marriage)
MORES ethical standard, moral standard
(one spouse at a time,
taboos(forbidden acts)
1.incest taboos - marriage of relatives
2.ostracism)
LAWS formalized norms - norms which are sanctioned by the state (constitution)
MATERIAL CULTURE tools(man made resources or artifacts)
TECHNOLOGY use of knowledge

CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
1. IS SHARED for the many
2. GROUP PRODUCT passes to the next generation.
3. IS LEARNED verbal, observation
4. TRANSMITTED from generation to generation
5. PATTERNED & INTERGRATED useful
6. ADAPTIVE & MALADAPTIVE
ADAPTIVE man uses to improve himself
MALADAPTIVE man disrupts culture & society
7. COMPULSORY man is part of society, social order
8. CUMULATIVE stores important knowledge & not so important are rejected.
9. DYNAMIC change, always moves, developing
10. DIVERSE each culture is different

DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURE
1. INNOVATION introduce of something new
A. discovery
B. invention
2. DIFFUSION process by which culture is opened group to group, society to society

COMPONENTS
1. TOPICAL anything
2. HISTORICAL
3. BEHAVIORAL peoples way of doing things
4. NORMATIVE good for social behavior
5. FUNCTIONAL used by man to improve himself(adaptive)
6. MENTAL think that culture is good can help you
7. STRUCTURAL understand events & conditions in life with movement
8. SYMBOLIC has meanings

3 TERRITORIES OF CULTURE
1. LOCAL CULTURE- way of life of a particular community & locality. 2. NATIONAL CULTURE – way of life of the Fiilipino
3. GLOBAL CULTURE – multiculturalism
- it is the culture of all the countries of the world. Global village.

1. SUBCULTURE – consist of smaller w/in the society that differ in actions & behaviour. Ex. Youth –dressing, speaking

2. COUNTERCULTURE – called contra culture. - Opposing the culture of society.
3. IDIOCULTURE – culture that is created by every group in society. 4. CULTURE SHOCK – feeling of disorientation. 5. ETHNOCEENTRISM – feeling that one’s culture is superior over other culture. 6. XENOCENTRISM –...
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