Module 2: Social order, Social control and Deviance
This is where there is conformity of norms and values particular to a society allowing for cohesion among its members.
Deviance and Crime
This is any act that defies the social norms of a society which will in turn receive disapproval from that society. •
Deviance can however be classified as criminal or non-criminal. •
Deviance is dependent on the culture of a society and the era. •
Some acts of deviance are universal.
This is any act that violates the laws within a society. •
This is a category of deviance.
These acts are punished by authoritative means.
Criminal acts are relevant to society’s culture and the era.
Thomas Hobbes was the first to address this concept. He is a philosopher from the 17th century. His theory was based around the time during and after the English civil war which occurred around (1642-51). His theory suggested that human behavior was one of that which is based on their natural characteristics of being selfish and competitive which can cause chaos in society. He suggests that a strong governing body could enforce this conformity.
Emile Durkheim (1893, 1912)
Agreed with Hobbes in that humans have unlimited desires but however disagreed with his assumption that a strong government alone would implement accepted behaviors but that social institutions should arrange such moral behavioral codes and that individuals accept this. With this acceptance a collective consciousness would therefore exist which in turn allows social order to occur naturally. Durkheim discusses the aspects of organic and mechanical solidarity. He explains that individuals of a small society share similar norms, values, beliefs, culture and engage in similar economic occupations. Therefore there is more consensus seen here. This is found in a...
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