1.The Colonial Period
a.Ethnic groups came for economic, political, or religious reasons
b.First to encounter Native Americans
c.Limited social interactions between settlers and natives
d.Cultural differences resulted in ______________________ reactions from both sides
a.Settlers were culturally distinct from one another in nationality and religion
b.English Quaker, William Penn, recruited several hundred Dutch and many more German settlers.
c.“Pennsylvania Dutch” were of German descent
i.Dutch is a corruption of Deutsch, means “German”
a.Religious differences caused social problems
b.Many people who first crossed the Atlantic as immigrants had been religious dissenters in their native land
c.Were seeking a _________________ in the new land
i.a place of religious _____________________
d.Brought with them their own religious ________________
i.They came seeking religious freedom
ii.many were ____________________ of others with different religious beliefs
e.1691, “liberty of conscience” included all Christians and Baptists, but excluded Catholics.
i.Dislike of Catholics was the one common ground which all protestants could agree
f.Presbyterians, Baptists, Quakers, German Reform, and Lutherans were “frontier”
i.intolerant of one another
ii.shared a strong dislike of Angelicans
iii.Angelicans disliked New England Puritans; New Englanders reciprocated the feelings
g.Religious clashes were not uncommon.
h.“Any attempt to portray the colonies as unified and homogeneous would be misguided”
B.The Early National Period
a.Because no single religion dominated the colonies, religious tolerance slowly _____________________.
b.1789, nation’s leading statesmen put aside their prejudices to institutionalize such tolerance, creating: the __________________ of church and state.
c.Some states barred Catholics and Jews from running for elected office in the early years
d.Institutional biased eventually yield, but not without a struggle
2.Early Signs of Nativist Reactions
a. Legislative Action
i.______________________, the conservatives of their day, attempted to limit all office holding to the native-born and to extend the period for naturalization from _______________ years.
ii.Succeeded in having the longer waiting period
iii.1798, Federalists assed a series of laws known collectively as the Alien and Sedition Acts: aimed to discourage political activity by pro-French immigrants.
iv.Widespread belief that a large foreign-born population threatened the stability of the United States.
A.Permanent Settlements in the New World
1.The English were the first white ethnic group to establish permanent settlements in the New World.
2.First two successful settlements were:
1.An emotional experience
a.Time of joy, sorrow, anticipation, and trepidation.
b.Knew what they were leaving behind, but were uncertain of what they will find.
a.First to fled England for Holland, and then journeyed to the New World
1.Many resisted and never became naturalized citizens
2.Started a new life, but did not intend to forsake their cultural heritage
3.Sought to preserve their heritage and pass it down to their children
4.Children became assimilated despite parents’ efforts
5.Parents did not want children to assimilate into Dutch culture