Chapter 4 - Culture: Its Unity and Diversity
* People’s beliefs with regard to dressing, food and cooking, love and courtship, marriage practices, ways of worshipping God, earning a living, leisure time activities, etc. * Behaviour patterns peculiar to a group of people comprise what sociologists and other social s scientists call Culture.
CONCEPT OF CULTURE
* Popular view of culture
It includes activities, products, and services that are assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle and working classes. This includes rock music, spectator sports movies, and TV soap operas.
* Hicks and Gynne (1994:313) concept about culture
Culture can also refer to expressive culture which includes plastic and graphic arts, such as sculptures and painting, and language when utilized as an artistic medium.
* Sociologists and Anthropologists concept about culture
-It refers to the total distinctive way of life or designs for living of any society.
* Weinstein (1996-82) concept about culture
It is a human invention that has a fundamental role in the population’s adaptation to its environment.
* Stark (1998:64) concept about culture
It is the sum total of human creations, intellectual, technical, artistic, physical and moral.
SOCIETY AND CULTURE
* Sociologists define society as a group of people occupying a geographical territory, with a common culture, and interacting with each other. * Functionalists consider society a social system which has a set of components related to one another in a more or less stable fashion through a period of time. * Major social institutions – Family, religion, economy, education and the state. * Conflict theorists – analyze society based on conflict and power.
* According to Zaden the functionalist and the conflict theory approaches complement each other. * Functionalism’s shortcoming is its difficulty in explaining history and social change. * Conflict theorists have difficulty dealing with aspects of consensus, integration and stability.
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
* Language refers to the systemized usage of speech and hearing to convey, communicate or express feelings and ideas. (Eshelman and Cashion 1983:93) * Symbolic Language – is responsible for the existence and development of culture. * A symbol is anything that stands or represents something else and is not immediately present to our senses. * Culture is inculcated orally and by writing through the medium of language. Language is an abstraction and is made up of rules for generating speech. * Language is an integral part of culture, and human culture cannot exist without it. (Perruci and Knudsen 1984:64-65) * Language enables people to transcend time and space. (Lindersmith and Strauss 1968:27-29) * Language is an excellent medium in which to study the values system of any people because it reveals choices, directions of interest, and differences among age, sex, and occupational groups (Emy Pascasio 1981-80) * Languages and Dialects in the Philippines
Because of the multiplicity of languages and dialects, the American educators introduced English as the medium of instruction when they establish the public school system. During the Commonwealth Period, Pres. Quezon advocated a national language based on Tagalog, but this was strongly opposed by the other ethnic linguistic groups, especially the Cebuanos who constitute the largest language speaking group. In 1974 the policy of bilingualism was introduced, purportedly to develop competence in the use of both Filipino and English. In 1968 Constitution provided for a national language of the Philippines which would be developed and enriched on the basis of other existing Philippine and other languages.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
1. Culture is Learned
The norms, skills, values, and knowledge which constitute one’s culture are acquired during the course of one’s life and...
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