The term “sociology” was coined by August Comte in the nineteenth century from the Latin word“socios” (companion with others) and the Greek word “logos” (study of reason) to describe the new science of social life.
"In the sense, sociology is the study of human interactions and inter-relations, their conditions and consequences".“The science of social phenomena "subject to natural and invariable laws, the discovery of which is the object of investigation"
"Sociology is a general science of society".
"Sociology is the science that deals with social groups".Science of social institutions.
science of collective behavior".The science of social relationships.The study of man-in-relationship-to-men.
"Sociology is the scientific study of social life".The science of social phenomena.
"Sociology is the study of man and his human environment in their relations to each other".
" The science which attempts the interpretative understanding of social action in order thereby to arrive at a casual explanation of its course and effects".
"Sociology is the study of systems of social action and of their inter-relations".
"Sociology is the scientific study of social aspects of human life". “A science guided by the basic understanding that the social matters: our lives are affected not only by our individual characteristics, but by our place in the social world”. Characteristics of Sociology
1) Sociology is an independent science:
Sociology as an independent science has its own field of study, its own boundary and methods. It is not treated and studied as a branch of any other science like philosophy, Political science and History. 2) Sociology is a Social science and not a Physical science: Sociology is a humanistic science i.e. it deals with the social universe and not with the physical universe. It is particularly concerned with social facts and man's relationships, social activities and social life. It is intimately related to the social sciences like History, Political science, Economic, Psychology, Anthropology etc. It can be distinguished from Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry and other physical sciences. 3) Sociology is a Categorical and not a normative discipline: Sociology as a science cannot deal with problem of good and evil, right and wrong and moral or immoral. It does not make any recommendations on matters of social policy or legislation or programme. It maintains a neutral posture making no value judgments of social issues. It only critically analyses social facts, objectively and scientifically. It confines itself to "what is" and not "what should be" or "what ought to be". 4) Sociology is a pure science and not an applied science:
Pure science refers to the acquisition of knowledge and applied science is converted with the applicability of knowledge of that science. Sociology is a pure science because its main purpose is to acquire knowledge about human society. It never bothers about the utilisation of knowledge. It only helps in the systematic analysis of social facts and issues, which ultimately helps the policy planners to utilise this knowledge for solutions. But sociologists themselves do not utilise this knowledge to life.
5) Sociology is relatively as Abstract Science and not a Concrete Science: Sociology is not interested in concrete manifestations of human events. It is more concerned with the form of human events and their patterns. It is not concerned with a particular war or revolution in general as social phenomena. It analyses the types of social phenomena, social conflict and social control. Sociology does not confine itself to the study of this society or that particular society. It is in this simple sense that sociology is an abstract and not a concrete science. 6) Sociology is a Generalising and not a Particularising Science: It aims to establish general laws or principles about inter-human interaction and associations; it seeks to find general principles about...
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