Sociology

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1. Sociology: The study of human social behavior, especially the study of the origins, organization, institutions, and development of human society. Analysis of a social institution or societal segment as a self-contained entity or in relation to society as a whole. 2. Thomas theorem: If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences(In other words, the interpretation of a situation causes the action. This interpretation is not objective. Actions are affected by subjective perceptions of situations. Whether there even is an objectively correct interpretation is not important for the purposes of helping guide individuals' behavior.) 3. natural science : A branch of science that deals with the physical world, e.g., physics, chemistry, geology, and biology. The branch of knowledge that deals with the study of the physical world. 4. industrial revolution:The rapid development of industry in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery. 5. Law of three stages: s an idea developed by Auguste Comte. It states that society as a whole, and each particular science, develops through three mentally conceived stages: (1) the theological stage, (2) the metaphysical stage, and (3) the positive stage. 6. Mechanical Solidarity and Organic Solidarity refer to the concepts of solidarity as developed by Émile Durkheim. They are used in the context of differentiating between mechanical and organic societies. In a society exhibiting mechanical solidarity, its cohesion and integration comes from the homogeneity of individuals—people feel connected through similar work, educational and religious training, and lifestyle. Mechanical solidarity normally operates in "traditional" and small scale societies.[1] In simpler societies (e.g., tribal), solidarity is usually based on kinship ties of familial networks. Organic solidarity comes from the interdependence that arises from specialization of work and the complementarities between people—a development which occurs in "modern" and "industrial" societies.[1] Definition: it is social cohesion based upon the dependence individuals have on each other in more advanced societies 7. Collective consciousness or collective conscience (French conscience collective) is the set of shared beliefs and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.[1] The term was introduced by the French sociologist Émile Durkheim in his Division of Labour in Society in 1893. 8. social facts are the values, cultural norms, and social structures which transcend the individual and are capable of exercising a social constraint. French sociologist Émile Durkheim, who put the term into broad circulation, states that in the study of society, "The first and fundamental rule is to consider social facts as things."[1] These "things" form the distinctive subject matter of sociology. 9. Sui generis is an adjective borrowed from Latin, meaning "of its own kind/genus" or "unique in its characteristics".[2] The term is widely needed to support the more esoteric requirements of a number of disciplines, including philosophy, when a concept is not available; in biology when a genus is not available; in law when a special and unique interpretation of a case or authority will be needed on the fly; in town-planning where there is no existing use case; in intellectual property rights where there is no defining characteristic; and in politics and societal norms where there is no real authority perceived. 10. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft (generally translated as "community" and "society") are sociological categories introduced by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies for two normal types of human association. (A normal type, as coined by Tönnies, is a purely conceptual tool to be built up logically, whereas an ideal type, as coined by Max Weber, is a concept formed by accentuating main elements of a historic/social change.) Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft sparked...
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