The social science discipline that looks at the development and structure of human society(institutions) and how they work. Sociology is the study of social life, social change, and the social causes and consequences of human behaviour. Sociologists investigate the structure of groups, organizations, and societies, and how people interact within these contexts. Status: is the term used to describe our position within an institution. Sociology studies interactions and conflicts within groups to determine how a society functions. Deviance:
any behaviour that is different form the societal norm. It is deviant, because we as a society do not accept it. Rehabilitation:
Trying to re-educate and re-socialize inmates so that they can grow to accept society’s values and norms. A fundamental component of modern imprisonment.
Karl Marx: Social change is the result of competition and the conflict that arises between social classes battling for power and economic resources. Max Weber: Culture is the predominant force in shaping human actions and society. Rationalization: The process whereby all aspects of human behaviour and social relationships are subject to administration. As societies change and become more diverse sociologists need to consider cultural diversity when considering sociological issues. Neo-Marxism:
The key to understanding societies is that economic power leads to political power. The struggle for economic power means that society is not static, but ever-changing social change is the result of a change made to the economic system. If we want to understand society, we must understand the economic system in place. Neo-Marxists believe that social institutions (churches, schools, prisons etc.) have been created to perpetuate the diversion between the powerful and the powerless. Symbolic Interactionism:
They believe humans have complex brains, and little instinctive behaviour. Feminist Theory:
Feminist Theorists focus on sex and gender issues, believing that women have traditionally been disadvantaged in society because men have discriminated against them. They believe that men have made the decisions in society and they tend to favour men. Marxian Feminism:
They believe that women’s unpaid and undervalued domestic work has made it possible for industrial owners to pay lower wages to male workers. They believe that the continuation of lower paid jobs has enabled the dominant class to retain their control.
The claims of women for equal rights is seen in the context of a general opposition to various forms of oppression and discrimination, independently of other political convictions. They emphasize social policy to open up professional, better paid and prestigious jobs to women and the elimination of laws discriminating against the political, property and social rights of women. Radical Feminism:
They believe that their natural child bearing role has led to a systematic oppression by men. They believe they live in a patriarchal society in which men dominate most of the institutions and are so entrenched that women cannot break in to these. Socialist Feminism:
Socialist Feminists try to separate issues of oppression that are the result of the patriarchy which is a result of capitalism. Inclusionism:
They recognize that conflict could take place in a society between ethnic, racial and religious groups as well as between economic classes. Before WW2, most sociologists took an assimilationist view of race believing the cultural majority would eventually absorb the minority(melting pot). How does Social Change come about?
Decay: a decline or degeneration(inevitable fall from grace). Cycles of Growth and Decay.
Reductionist or Determinist
Is the study of social encounters, experiences, roles, and interactions of individuals and small groups in society. It emphasizes how change occurs in an individual’s life depending on the social and...