Sociological Research

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1. Question: Assess the claim that Marxist theory no longer has any relevance for understanding modern societies. (25)

Candidate A's Answer
Marxist theory believes in inequality of people through capitalization. This theory argues that society is divided into two separate classes consisting of the Bourgoeisie and the Proletariat. The Bourgoeisie are the owners of the mean of production and are considered the ruling class, where as. The proletariats are the workers or laborers and are considered the subject class. Where as Marxist claims were of a greater relevance to traditional society the theory no longer hold that much truth when understanding modern societies. Marx is leading Marxist theorists argued that society was not fair to its members or more so a certain class in society. He believed that people were exploited by the ruling class for their labor and in order to run their businesses. Since they were the sole owners of the means of production, the subject class was dependent upon them in order to earn an income. However, they were also dependent on the subject class only they still took advantage and paid lower wages than was expected in order to keep the working class in place and not have them rise to become better off. The first contradiction of Marx argument was incorrect when he claimed that there were two classes. In modern society with changing times it can be seen that there exist more than two classes. There no longer exist only the ruling class and subject class but there is a middle class. With Marx prediction of polarization never occurring he was also proved wrong there. is the movement of class away from the middle class, shifting the extreme top or bottom as the case may be. This simply means that those who were rich become richer and the poor become poorer. However this never occurs. Although Marxist theory is not completely eliminated from society, society is not what it wants appeared to have been by Marx. The functionalist theory can also be applied to modern society but like Marxist not in great doses. The modern society can at time be peace and order with the smooth running of affairs, however at other times this tranquility can be upset with violence and war and inequality. Neo-Marxists, which are the new thoughts in the Marxist theory argues that in modern society apart from the two class previously mentioned, there exist a third. This class is known as the petite Bourgoeisie.They are, according to Neo-Marxist, considered to own small business and exist independently from the Bourgoeisie. Marx once mentioned that only within a communist society there would be peace and equality. He claims were that once all the means of production was owned by the Government, people would be treated fairly and be awarded equally. This claim too has been criticized greatly since modern society in seen to be functioning with democratic rulers and people and society seem to be satisfied. What should be greatly noted about Marxist theory is the time it was published. At this point in time society was as Marx claimed with false ideology and consciousness. People were treated unfairly and so Marx sought to give his solution to what was thought to be a problem. However, times since Marx have change with the introduction of the functionalists and their theory and that too was of a different era to the modern society. Both theories have served out their existence and now in the modern society new thoughts are progressing. However, points and statements can be related from the Marxist to modern society, but that is a s far as it goes in terms of using Marxist theory to understand modern society. Consequently, Marxist theory can be used as a guide to understanding modern society not as a general theory to fully comprehending what modern societies are about. With every era comes change and it is time that new studies (theories) be introduce to understand modern society (ies). The...
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