Sociological Foundation of Education
-By Gopi Chandra Upreti
M. Phil. Development Studies, KUSOED
Education is a process of learning. It is a kind of method to get knowledge in human life. As John Dewey said education ‘brings out all capabilities’ of human beings. It helps us to live our life independently. Accordingly, Socrates said that education has taken out our ideas from ‘innate capabilities’ so that we can know everything of the world. Education has certain functions as we observe its nature. The nature of education can be divided into four groups. They are: formal, non-formal and informal; general and specific; direct and indirect; and individual and collective. These educations have different functions that help an individual and nation to progress in respects. The functions of education, as Dewey said, is to change an indifferent creature into a happy man with incite what he has got. So, different functions of education are: Individual, Social, Economic, National and International. Education is thus helpful to all of us from individual to international level. The goal and purpose of education is to change behavior of human beings. Human beings want to experience new things and they are searching ideas to attain that. It is possible only through education. So, broadly speaking we can divide the goals of education into two categories: Individual and Social. Education has changed us individually because it makes us aware about personal rights and independence. Similarly it aims to change society as well. It helps us to change the social rules, functions and customs. It makes us aware about the values of society and so on. Thus, the aim of education is to contribute for development of any society.
Sociological Foundation of Education
Sociological concept is not odd in the history of human beings. People live in community and they perform mutual behavior or coordination to lead their life. Thus, “sociology is a social science which concerns with the scientific study of human relations or group life” (Regmi, Bhandari & Gurung, 2011). The concept society comes through the process of socialization. People live in coordination by forming a community and they have practiced living in groups or forming society. They formed rules and regulations and practiced it while living in society. Hence the society has got its shape. Rules and regulations have been guiding the society by forming its norms. They have formed it and practiced it in the daily life and it takes the form of ritual. So “sociology comprehensively studies social behavior, social interaction, social structure and culture of society.” (Regmi, Bhandari & Gurung, 2011) The tradition has thus been established and humans have developed the concept of society. The scholars have practiced it and they have been trying to analyze the context of the society as they have understood it as per the demand of time. The context of society and education has thus related to study the foundation of it. Education is the main part of human life and they learn knowledge through it. Though they have got knowledge through different practices, education has made it systematic. Education has got its shape in the context of learning and doing practices. Therefore, Regmi, Bhandari and Gurung (2011) say that “education has been developed as one of the ways to fulfill the need to train the members of society.” The study of education thus contributed to transform their knowledge and tradition to their future generations and they have been keeping their rituals as that was. The knowledge of one society is different from the knowledge of another society. So Regmi, Bhandari and Gurung, (2011) started that “the society gives training to its members from society to society.”
Function of Education in Society
Education has various purposes and it is used differently as we observe the history of human beings and education...