Sociolinguistics in Alalak Island

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  • Topic: Language, Slang, South Kalimantan
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  • Published : February 7, 2013
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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
I.1Background
A language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication (Wardhaugh, in Ramelan 1984). Language is one of the most powerful emblems of social behavior. In the normal transfer of information through language, we use language to send vital social messages about who we are, where we come from, and who we associate with. It is often shocking to realize how extensively we may judge a person’s background, character, and intentions based simply upon the person's language, dialect, or, in some instances, even the choice of a single word. According to Fishman, for instance, socially, the language use involves “Who speaks, what language, to whom, when and where” (Fishman, 1972:244). Sociolinguistic is the study of language. According to Janet Holmes sociolinguistic is a term that refers to the study of the relationship between language and society, and how language is used in multilingual speech communities. There are some parts in sociolingustic such as: varieties of language, taboo and euphemism, etc. South Kalimantan has some local languages and one of them is Banjarese which has two major dialects, they are Banjar Kuala and Banjar Hulu. This research is taken place in Sewangi Island, Alalak, South Kalimantan. Alalak is one of the regions in South Kalimantan. Mostly, the people in Alalak are Banjarese which uses Banjarese as their first language. II.1Problem

The problems of this study are:
1.What are the language varieties of certain community?
2.What are the differences between local people and local foreigner? III.1Objective
1.To describe the language varieties of certain community.
2.To find out the differences between local people and local foreigner.

CHAPTER II
THEORITICAL REVIEW
A language is a system arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication(Wardhaugh, in Ramelan, 1984). A language is arbitrary system of articulated sounds made use of by a group of humans asa means of carrying on the affairs of their society (Francis, in Ramelan, 1984)A language is a set of rules enabling speakers to translate information from the outsideworld into sound (Gumperz, 1972)A language is a means of communication that uses speech sounds as a medium (Ramelan,1984)In this world, no two people speak the same.

There are infinite sources of variation inspeech. A sound spectrograph, a machine which represents the sound waves of speech invisual form, shows that even a single vowel may be pronounced in hundreds of minutelydifferent ways, most of which listeners do not even register. Some features of speech,however, are shared by groups, and become important because they differentiate onegroup from another. Just as different languages often serve a unifying and separatingfunction for their speakers, so do speech characteristics within languages.

INTERFERENCE
The concept of interference referred to the use of formal elements of one of code withthe context of another, i.e. any phonological, morphological, lexical or syntacticelement in a given language that could be explained by the effect of contact withanother language ( Troike and Blackwell, 1986)Mackey defines interference as ³the use of features belonging to one language whilespeaking or writing another´. The description of bilingualism must be distinguishedfrom the analysis of language borrowing (Fishman, ed., 1972:569)

Taboo
Language is used to avoid saying certain things as well as to express them certainthings are not said, not because they cannot be, but because µpeople¶ don¶t talk aboutthose things¶. Taboo is one way in which a society expresses its disapproval of certainkinds of behavior believed to be harmful to its members, either for supernaturalreasons or because such behavior is held to violate a moral code.

Tabooed subjects can vary widely: ones mother-in-law; certain game animals; sex;death; excretion; bodily functions; religious matters; and the left hand (the origin of sinister)....
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