CAUSES OF THE PHENOMENON “EL NIÑO” IN ECUADOR
In the years of 97 and 82 the phenomenon “El Niño” hit Ecuador causing political, economic and social problems. This phenomenon left our country with an enormous disaster and also with an impact that would be very difficult to forget. It phenomenon killed so many people and also left them poor in the streets. We will know what is it, the causes and the comparison between the two years when this phenomenon hit us. “El Niño” is a cyclical weather phenomenon that causes global havoc being the most affected South America and the areas between Indonesia and Australia causing with them the warming of the American South’s waters. The origin of the name of this phenomenon it is refers to the Christ child because it almost always occurs around Christmas time in the Pacific Ocean along the west coast of South America. The name of this phenomenon also is the oscillation of the southern “El Niño”, “ENSO” because of its acronym in English. It is a syndrome with more than seven millennia of occurrence. The name "El Niño" also refers to the periodic appearance of warm water in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean, along the Ecuador. The arrival of unusually warm water to this area can lead to unexpected changes and often undesirable-in weather systems around the world, especially in tropical regions. According to statistics, El Niño occurs every four years and a half, but can be repeated in two years or even 10 years later recur During a normal year, the cold water rises from the depths of the ocean to the surface off the coast of Peru and Ecuador, in a process known as coastal upwelling. This upwelling is caused by the rotation of the Earth and the trade winds that usually blow from the southeast to the north along the Peruvian coast and into the western Pacific Ocean. In combination, these processes surface water away from the coast. Deep water, cooler, reaches the surface to replace the displaced water. Over time, the strong winds that blow westward over the ocean produce an accumulation of surface water heated by the sun in the western equatorial Pacific, near Australia, Philippines and Indonesia. Scientists call this accumulation of water "tank warm." Typically, the ocean level is about 60 cm higher in the Western equatorial Pacific in the eastern Pacific, along the Peruvian coast. Each year, approximately late December, the trade winds weaken and the upstream process is slowed, resulting in a seasonal warming along the coast of central South America. Peruvian fishermen noticed this phenomenon for over a century and named it "El Niño" (referring to the Child Jesus) by the proximity of Christmas. Seasonal heating usually lasts a few months back and ends when the winds and the upwelling process become more vigorous. However, every few years, the seasonal warming does not end. The winds that blow westward along the equatorial region are weakened and sometimes reverse their direction blowing toward the east, so that coastal upwelling is slowed dramatically. By weakening the wind, surface water accumulated in the western Pacific flows back eastward, in a process similar to that this occurs in a bathtub when the water displaced turns to his point of origin. When this occurs, warm the tank typically moves towards the central and eastern Pacific. Surface water flows eastward is divided to reach the coast of South America. Some water goes south, while another branch is directed towards North America and travels along the west coast of the United States. We can detect this phenomenon by different methods as ranging from satellites and buoys to sea-level analysis, obtaining important information about conditions in the ocean surface. For example; the buoys measure temperature, current winds in the equatorial band they transmit this information to researches worldwide. The phenomenon “El Niño” develops in the tropical Pacific Ocean near to Australia and Indonesia, as I said before,...
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