Socila Security

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Most human actions are dictated by the quest for security and protection against the exigencies of a harsh world .The primitive human being of yesteryears sought protection against wild animals and the astute diplomats fought a cold war which was necessitated by an underlying motive; security. (Puidak p, 1993) Society made a great error of thinking that, man in a rational way of conducting activities of his social and economic life would of his own accord save enough to take care of any contingencies that may befall him during or after his working life. To date, wages and salaries have been meager; workers are unable to save toward precautionary and speculative motives in order to ultimately take care of contingencies. This worthy outcome was the realization of the need for a community action in the provision of protection against the consequences of illness of illness, old age, death of a member of the family and other misfortunes. This also resulted in the pressure being put on the government through very influential personalities in society to enact various laws for the social protection of workers and citizens in general. It led to so many types of social securities whose mechanisms were for the private pension scheme. In Ghana, the social security pension scheme was established under the provisional national defense council law 247 of 1991. (SSNIT Pension and Invalidity brochure). The scheme is administered by the social security and national insurance trust. Like the social security Act of 1935, it concentrates on issues like old age, survivors and disability and invalidity insurance (OASDI), (Google, Martin on social security). The scheme provides benefits for all who have worked and contributed for a minimum period of in an establishment .The Pension scheme in countries form special pension arrangements as part of the conditions of service. Benefits under this scheme are solely on what the contributors put in plus interest over the period. These programs touch the lives of well over 90 percent of all persons living or working in Ghana and provide critical income to those who have retired or ceased working due to severe physical or mental disability. They also provide income to other members of the family when a worker has retired, become disabled or died .The directing these payments and setting their amounts is complicated. There have been several questions concerning the proper applications of these laws in hundreds of thousands of administrative hearings and in several court proceedings each year, in Ghana and around the world. (Prof. Martin, Cornell law school, New York). Since these benefits are centrally important to individuals at critical points in their lives, understanding under what circumstances they are available and how much the payment will be is vital information for planning and making decisions about other forms of savings or insurance. Other types of Social Security include the Provident fund. All these welfare /government financial schemes are to ensure the welfare and the protection of contributors. The provident fund scheme was established through the contributions of workers and employers. Like all provident fund, it is operated basically as a savings accounts for contributors to fall on in time of contingencies. This reference work covers issues on entitlement and benefit calculations arising out of the set of programmes popularly referred to as social security.

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Personal records are essential for demographic analysis. SSNIT, an institution responsible for providing social protection for the working population for various contingencies such as old age, invalidity through their contributions, realizes the need to update personal records of its customers. To this end, opportunity has been offered to contributors to check on their records, provide statement of accounts and the provisions of personal data record...
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