Society and Culture Notes

Topics: Sociology, Social stratification, Discrimination Pages: 11 (3349 words) Published: March 19, 2013

Social Literacy-A socially literate individual: is interested in, observes & asks questions about the micro & macro world.
-Shows critical discernment towards the media.
-Is capable of informed decision making & takes consider action on social views. -Empathises with people of different societies & cultures. -Researches effectively & ethically.
-Communicates effectively.
-Understands continuity & change & the implications for the future in a global context. -Shows concern for the welfare, rights & dignity of all people. -Is self aware, with a sense of personal social & cultural identity. Society-Patterns of relationships between people, groups, networks, institutions, organisations & systems. Culture-The system of values & meanings shared by a group or society, including the embodiment of those values & meanings in material objects. Demonstrated by beliefs, values, customs, laws, arts, technology etc. Environment-The physical setting of a society.

Power-The exercise of force or control over individuals or groups by other individuals or groups. Authority-The legitimate use of power, not induced by coercion or violence. Involves the right to determine, adjudicate or settle issues. Gender-Socially constructed categories of masculine & feminine, which a differently defined in different cultures. Technology-Knowledge directed towards practical applications in the physical & social worlds. The manipulation of raw materials with the aim of giving them functional or useful form. Micro World-Involves an individual’s personal experience i.e. family, peers & school. Macro World-Involves an individuals public knowledge i.e. media, law, workplace or government.

Continuity-The persistence of social & cultural elements over time with little change. Change-Alterations to social behaviour patterns over time due to changes in social structures, organisations, processes & attitudes. Values-The core underlying beliefs, opinions & ideas from which we operate or react from. Tradition-A custom or value passed down from generation to generation. Cooperation-Social interaction in which individuals or groups act together to promote common interests or shared goals. Globalisation-The consciousness of the world as a single place brought about by world information systems, TNC’s, world tourism, world sport, and world economic systems etc. Westernisation-A model of modernisation based on western values & influence. Beliefs-An assertion, claim or expectation about reality that is presumed to be either true or false. Identity-An individual’s sense of self-awareness based on culture, appearance, peers, experience etc. Industrialisation-A process of social change whereby human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state primarily through technological innovation. Modernisation-A process of social change resulting from the diffusion & adoption of characteristics of apparently more advanced societies. Its many characteristics include secularisation, social & political control & transformation of social relations. Institutions-The structural components of society. The basis of organisation e.g. the family, church, media, government. Institutionalisation means social practices are regularly & continuously repeated, legitimised & maintained by social norms. Heritage-Social & cultural elements deemed valuable enough to be passed from generation to generation. Conflict-Involves individuals or groups struggling with each other for some commonly prized object or value. Empowerment-Process of gaining power. This may be through personal means e.g. education or designated from external sources.

Colonialism-process of social change through the extension of a nation’s sovereignty over territory a people outside its own boundaries to...
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