Society and Culture

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Continuity and change

The nature of Social and Cultural Research Methodologies|
Examine the nature and characteristics of primary and secondary research| | Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative research| | Examine the characteristics of the following:-survey-case study-participant observation-content analysis-focus group-action research-interview-questionnaire-observation-ethnographic studystatistical analysis (data analysis)| Action Research- an informal, qualitative, interpretive, reflective and experimental methodology that requires all the participants to be collaborative researchers. Action research is carried out be people who usually recognize a problem or limitation in their workplace situation and, together, devise a plan to counteract the problem, implement the plan, observe what happens, reflect on these outcomes, revise the plan, implement it, reflect, revise and so on. Action research can be though of as a spiral of planning, acting, observing and reflecting, occruing through time until the most desirable outcomes for all participants are achieved.|

The Nature of Social and Cultural Continuity and Change|
Understanding continuity and change through:|
Identifying the nature of social and cultural continuity and change| The concepts of continuity and change are commonly used in our society, but for many of us they are hard to define. These terms share the feature of time being a determining factor. It is the opportunity of time that allows a society to develop and modify itself to change. Likewise when we observe a particular culture or community over a period of time we can oberve clear continuities. The term 'social change' is a term used within sociology and applies to modifications in social relationships or culture (the term 'cultural change' is the term used within anthropology). Since society and culture are interdependent, 'sociocultural change' is a more accepted term. The study of sociocultural change is the systematic study of variation in social and cultural 'systems'. There are inherent methodological problems of identification and measurement of change, and rarely does one cause produce one effect. All societies are involved in a process of social change, however, this change may be so incremental that the members of the society are hardly aware of it. People living in very traditional societies would be in this category. Societies are characterised by change: the rate of change, the processes of change, and the directions of change.The actions of individuals, organisations and social movements have an impact on society and may become the catalyst for social change. The actions of individuals, however, occur within the context of culture, institutions and power structures inherited from the past, and usually, for these individuals to effect dramatic social change, the society itself is tripe' for change.Broad social trends, for example, shifts in population, urbanisation, industrialisation and bureaucratisation, can lead to significant social change. In the past, this has been associated with modernisation, the process whereby a society moves from traditional, less developed modes of production (like small-scale agriculture) to technologically advanced industrial modes of production. Trends like population growth and urbanisation have a significant impact on other aspects of society, like social structure, institutions and culture. Nineteenth and early Twentieth Century social theorists focused fairly extensively on modernisation, but they tended to present on oversimplified "grand narrative" which resulted from heavily ideological interpretations of the contrast between tradition and modernisation. They also attempted to externalise absolutes, "social laws" as they saw them, and they argued that these social laws were operative in structurally similar societies.Social continuity cannot simply be defined as the absence of social change, that is, things remaining...
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