Society

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Basics in Social Science ( E,I,J & K)
Lecture sheet-1, What is sociology? “ It ain’t the things we don’t know that gets us in trouble. It’s the things we know that ain’t so”.-Artemus Ward What is Society?
• A group of sentient beings
• A group of physically interested individuals (Ell Good) • Society is a state of quality of mind (MackIver)
• An association of individuals organized, for given ends (Bushee) • Society is the system of social relationships in and through which we live

What is the definition of science?
• An objective, logical and systematic method of analysis of phenomena devised to permit the accumulation of reliable knowledge. • Knowledge achieved through research.

What is Sociology?
No concrete definition of sociology because each & every sociologist view society, people, events & changes from different perspective.

• “Sociology is the scientific study of society”-(Parato).

• According to Kenrick Thompson, “Sociology is the study of the groups and societies that people create and of how these, in turn, affect the people who create and maintain them.” He also argued that sociology seeks to explain patterns of human behavior. • According to Max Weber, “Sociology is a science which attempts the interpretative understanding of social action in order thereby to arrive at a causal explanation of its causes and effects.” • According to Morris Ginsberg, “In the broadest sense, sociology is the study of human interaction and interrelations, their conditions and consequences.” • James W. vander Zanden, “Scientific study of social interaction and organization.” • T.B.Bottomore argued that “The fundamental conception or directing idea, in sociology, is the social structure.” • Study of social rules & processes that bind, and separate people-not only as individuals, but as members of groups, associates & institutions. • David dressler: Scientific study of human interactions. • Emile Durkheim, Science of institutions.

• The systematic study of developing models that can help to predict social changes, and how people will respond to social changes.

Sociology is concerned /interested in our behavior as social beings-thus the field of sociology ranges from the Analysis of short contacts between anonymous people on the street to the study of global social process.

Evolution of Sociology:
Sociology was born out of the French Revolution. It was a time of social and economic changes, also the industrial revolution in England brought about displacement of peasants, who were replaced with wage laborers.

~ the scientific study of human interactions (David Dressler) ~ the science of social actions (Max Weber)
~ the science of institutions (Émile Durkheim)

Watch out the word ‘science’ in all definitions. Can you say why it is a science??

~ The systematic study of the development, structure, interaction, and collective behavior of organized groups of human beings.

The Gradual Development of Sociology:

Founder ( emphasized that the study of society must be scientific ( urged sociologists to employ systematic observation, experimentation, and comparative historical analysis as their methods

Feminist and Methodologist ( wrote the first book on social research methods and was among the first to do systematic, scientifically based, social research ( her comparative analysis of slavery and the position of women in the Western world showed the way for feminist scholarship and the further study of gender equality

Social Darwinist–i.e. promoter of the Darwinian concept of survival of the fittest to the social world ( depicted society as a system, a whole made up of interrelated parts.

class conflict theorist ( believed that society is divided into those who own the means of producing wealth and those who do not, giving rise to class conflict ( focused his search for the basic...
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