Socials Grade 8 Final Exam Notes

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Lord And Lady Of The Manor
* Lived in the best house of the manor and had servants to care for them  * Several rooms 
* Walls draped with tapestries to keep out the cold 
* Every room had furniture 
* No electricity or plumbing  
* Enjoyed having expensive things that depicted their status   * Lords also had obligations to look after.  
* Had to keep contract with vassal 
* Had to marry and have children 
* No children meant the vassal could take back land 
* Marriages were arranged  
* Land and wealth were primarily reasons for marriage   Women: 
* Before marriage a father controlled the life of a daughter and after marriage her husband controlled her  * If a man had no male heirs then the daughter might receive the land  * If they didn't marry the vassal would take away the land  * Widows had their rights property and freedom 

* Kings tried to get widows to remarry but they didn't have to  

Belief And Devotion In Medieval Society
* During the Middle Ages faith in God was an accepted faith of life   * One of the main focuses of the church was to convert non-Christians  * The roles of a priest consisted of celebrating the mass in the manor church, helped care for sick and the poor, preformed blessings   * High church officials could also be vassals to a king or other lord   * As holy men they were not expected to fight in a battle   * The church taught that if you had a bad life then you would be doomed eternal suffering  * Christians who disobeyed the church faced the threat of losing sacraments and lost property   * A long who defied the church could also have things taken away and the pop would release the subjects from any feudal obligations   * In the ninth century Christian monks copied Classical Greek and Latin texts so that they would be made more widely available   * The church did face problems 

* Such as within their own clergy  
* Others ignored vows o poverty and obedience  
* Often they dressed in expensive clothes and entertained kings and nobles 

Results of The Crusades 
* There were 8 crusades launched between 1096-1270 
* All of them had the same result in common: 
The Holy Land is never completely conquers by the crusades for a very long period of time   
1. Military Results  
* The crusades didn't recapture the Holy Lands from the Muslims   2. Religious Results 
* The power of the church increased because it unified all people across Europe to get the Holy Land back  3. Trade and Economic Results  
* Large Italian fleets of ships built to carry crusades to the Holy Lands  * They used these ships as trading vessels to being items from Palestine to Europe   * Merchants from all over Europe increased their trading with the Middle East   * Direction of Trade: India and China- Palestine-Europe   4. World View Results  

* Trade and travel made people in Europe more curious about other parts of the world   * People in Europe realized that other cultures were not monsters that they thought they had been  * People in Europe learned and incorporated new ideas in clothing, customs and languages  * Thy stated to use these ideas in their own countries    

High Middle Ages 
Vocabulary  
* Freeholder - A person who owns his/her land 
* Tithe - Money or produce given to the Church 
* Tapestry - Embroidered cloth used as a wall hanging 
* Homage - Formal acknowledgement  
* Bailiff - Person who collected rent and supervised on a manor  * Vassal - One who swears loyalty to a lord 
* Canonize - To declare someone a saint  
* Oath of Allegiance - Oath which people said to exclaim his/her loyalty to their lord   * Demesne -  Land set aside for The Lord of the manor   * Excommunicate - To cancel a person rights to the church; no communion or marriage ect.   * Troubadour - A medieval singer who writes and songs poems about love  ...
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