Socialisation is the process by which an individual learns to live in accordance with the expectations and standards of a group or society, acquiring its beliefs, habits, values and accepted modes of behavior primarily through imitation, family interaction and educational system; the procedure by which society integrates the individual. It begins in early childhood by which the individual becomes aware of the need to accommodate inner drives to the demands of external reality. At birth children have few of the qualities, apart from the physical ones, that we expect of human beings – they cannot walk or talk, they do not know how to eat and they have no opinions on religion, politics or sport. Sociologists believe that human beings are not just created in a physical manner, but also in a social manner. If people were left on their own after birth, merely being fed and physically cared for, they would not develop into recognizable human beings. They would not be able to talk, perhaps even to walk, to laugh, or to understand others. In effect they would merely be animals. As soon as a child is born the members of society begin to influence and mould the child’s beliefs, personality and behavior.
The learning process begins in childhood, but continues throughout life. The growing child, through contact with others of the society, gradually learns the language, beliefs and behavior of the group in which he/she is brought up. The values and behavior vary, so that the socialisation process is different from one society to another. Socialisation is subdivided under the two main following headings:
Primary Socialisation starts from the minute a baby is born and carries on developing up until the age of 3 years old. During this primary stage we tiny individuals learn everything that isn’t thought to be innate, from our parents or guardians. Therefore walking, moving and basic reflexes, talking, chewing/swallowing food, holding items and some emotions...
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