MAP – is a representation in a flat surface of all or a part of the Earth’s surface drawn to a specific scale. It is often the most effective means for showing the locations of both natural and cultural features, their sizes, and their relationships to one another. It is one of the basic tools used in the study of the Earth’s surface.
A person trained in the art of map making is called CARTOGRAPHER while the science of mapmaking is called CARTOGRAPHY.
In order to understand a map, knowledge of standard showing of direction is necessary. The top of the map always stands for north, the left is west, the right is east, and the bottom is south. Meridians of longitude are drawn as lines running from top to bottom, and parallels of latitude are indicated by lines running from side to side. In certain maps, however, the meridians may be drawn radiating from the center and the parallel are in the form of circles. This is true of polar projections of maps.
A good map should have three essential features: (1) the scale of the map, (2) the map projection, and (3) the types of things represented on the map and the meaning of each symbol used.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD MAP
A good map should be possessing the following characteristics: 1. Grid 4. Legend
2. Scale 5. Orientation
3. Base Data 6. Color
Grid – is the combination of imaginary lines such as the parallels and meridians. These criss-crossing lines are the bases for telling the latitudes and longitudes on Earth.
Scale – it expresses the relationship between distance or area on the map to the true distance or area on the Earth’s surface.
The scale of a map is usually indicated in three ways:
1. By a line graph or graphic, or bar scale.
1 2 3 4 5 Kilometers
2. By a statement of the proportion used which is generally expressed as a ratio or fraction Example: 1 cm. 50 kms. Or “one...