Social Security Provisions as Per Labor Act of Nepal

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1.1 Background
The mutual conflict between the employer and the employees over the question of adequacy of their respective shares in social produce, constitutes the crux of the labour problem, of which collective bargaining and industrial conflict are the two most important aspects. As industrialisation advances the worker is increasingly alienated from his previous socio-cultural world and thus faces various insecurities with regard to income and employment in addition to the natural ones (i.e., sickness, maternity and the age) for which the new order does not have structural provision. This is how the problem of social security arises and revolution has meant urbanisation. In ancient times if a person was unable to work on a particular day, he was cared for by the village, community or by the members of his family. But now urbanisation has so deeply uprooted these values that in times of sickness, unemployment, old age and other similar contingencies a worker has nothing to fall back upon. In modern times social security is influencing both social and economic policy. Social security is the security that the State furnishes against the risks which an individual of small means cannot, today, stand up to by himself even in private combination with his fellow. Social security envisages (foresees) that the members of a community shall be protected by collective action against social risks causing undue hardship and privation to individuals whose private resources can seldom be adequate to meet them. The concept of social security is based on ideals of human dignity and social justice. The underlying idea behind social security measures is that a citizen who has contributed or is likely to contribute to his country’s welfare should be given protection against certain hazards. In context of Nepal, The Labour Act 1992 was enacted by the first parliament in 1992. Before this Act, the Factory and Factory Workers Act 1959 had been in force...
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