Social Science Essay

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SOCIAL SCIENCE THEORY ESSAY
Most of the things we know about human´s behaviour has come out because of the different psychological theories. We may question why there are so many different psychological perspectives, which one is right and which one is wrong. Most Psychologists nowadays would say that none of the theories are correct. However, in the early days, the Psychologists would agree that all the theories were the only truly scientific one. Psychology is a science dedicated to the study of our mind and behaviour. There are different ways of understanding the human mind and behaviour, those ways are called perspectives. A perspective is basically a point of view or a way of considering how some things are linked together and their importance. Sigmund Freud known as the father of psychoanalysis was a famous physiologist, medical doctor and an influential thinker of the early twenties. Freud was the one who created a new method to understand the human personality. He had one of the most provocative minds of the last century. Freud was the one that improved the theory of psychodynamic psychology and the famous treatment known as psychoanalysis. Freud was one of the most brilliant thinkers in the last century, he brought public attention by his ideas of we usually are not conscious of the aspects of ourselves. He believed that what people are conscious of is symbolized in our minds, memories and feelings. Freud believed that the things we experienced in the past are part of our mind that he called the unconscious. However, we are not able to access the contents in our unconscious, they often appear in our dreams. Freud described the unconscious mind has an iceberg where only a very small part of it is accessible to awareness. The part of the unconscious that he believed it can be accessed very easily he named the pre-conscious.

The importance of an early experience is evidently illustrated by Freud’s development theory of psychosexual development. He described that each stage of our life concentrates on a part of the body that is relevant at that stage. If the needs of the individual are achieved on that stage, the he or she was ready to go into the next stage. However, if the individual struggles to achieve that stage then he or she becomes stuck in this stage. Freud believed that these results are the ones that we carry through into the adulthood and it can possibly explain our behaviours later in life. Stretch and Whitehouse (2010) The early stage of an individual is called the oral stage. The focus on this stage is on the mouth and activities like, sucking, licking and biting. Freud believes that there could be two reasons for fixation. If the infant was discouraged two early, It could make the infant feels unsatisfied and the infant could become a negative, sarcastic person. If, in the other hand, the infant was over-gratified, the infant could develop a gullible personality, easily trusting in others and with a tendency of swallow anything. The early stage lasts from birth to approximately 18 months. Stretch and Whitehouse (2010) If the infant gets through the stage with no problems, the next stage is called the anal stage, where the infant focuses on aspects to do with potty training. If there is a fight between the parents and the child during the potty training or if the child does not feel comfortable while potty training, they may rebel by retaining their faeces. This type of fixation is called anally retentive. The child is not given the opportunity to enjoy potty training so the child can become a very disorganised person. During the ages of four and five, the child passes through the phallic stage. Freud believed that this stage is associated with nervousness and guilt feelings about sex and fear of castration for males. If this stage is not passes successfully, this theory suggests that a boy could become homosexual and a girl could become a lesbian. Freud thought these were abnormal fixations...
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