B.A. LLB (HONS.) 2ND SEM 2013-14
SUBMITTED TO:- SUBMITTED BY:- VANADANA SINGH ARPITA RANJAN HISTORY PROFESSOR B.A. LLB (HONS.) DR. RMLNLU LUCKNOW 2ND SEM, 36
2. BRAHMO SAMAJ
3. ARYA SAMAJ
4. THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY
5. YOUNG BENGAL MOVEMENT
6. RAMA KRISHNA MOVEMENT
Socio-Religious Reform Movements in India were part of eighteenth century and twentieth-century India. During this time, on one side, India was suffering from stagnating traditional culture and society at very low ebb; while on the other hand, India possessed a still traditional society in the throes and the creative excitement of modernising and of emerging as a new nation. The nineteenth century initiated this process of transformation in the religious, social, economic, political, and cultural spheres. The impact of the British Empire influenced administration, legislation, trade, network of communications, industrialisation and urbanisation in India, affecting not only society as a whole, but also the traditional patterns of life. British scholars, educators and missionaries also impacted the cultural field. The reformers consciously reacted to the new situation and advocated deliberate changes in social and religious attitudes and customs. The reformers had a great impact on nineteenth-century India, but there were also other factors effecting change. The nineteenth-century reform movement became closely conjoined to a political movement, and consequently sought to influence political authority, administration, and legislation. This political movement eventually became an all-India nationalist movement. Whereas previously social reform was inextricably interwoven with religious motivation and improvement, in the nineteenth century, the relationship of the two fluctuated, and sometimes secular and rationalistic motives were the decisive ones. Among the most noteworthy reformers is Swaminarayana of Gujarat, initiator of a sect bearing his name and Mahatma Ramalingam of Tamil Nadu. The British administration and European literature brought a constellation of fresh ideas which constituted a challenge to the new intellectuals. Rationalism as the basis for ethical thinking, the idea of human progress and evolution, the possibility of scientifically engineering social change were all unfamiliar to the traditional society. The Christian missionaries also had a strong influence. The nineteenth-century reformers, starting with Ram Mohan Roy, acknowledged their indebtedness even though certain aspects of missionary`s activity were opposed. Initially, India had already produced a small social group, the English educated intelligentsia, closely associated with British administration. They quickly realised the faults in the social and religious characteristics of society and thus several ideas of reform first arose amongst them. At this stage, there was no concern for the general people, or any desire to transform the structure of society at large. Rather the focus was on improving and reshaping their lives according to the new standards.
Brahmo Samaj:- The first phase of its history is intimately linked up with the career of its founderRammohun Roy (1772 - 1833). The Brahmo Samaj which was launched...