Social policy, social welfare, and the welfare state
■ ■ ■
Introduction Learning outcomes Social policy Deﬁning social policy in terms of types of expenditure Analysing social policy Social policy as intentions and objectives Redistribution The management of risk Social inclusion Social policy as administrative and ﬁnancial arrangements Social policy as social administration Social policy as public ﬁnance Social policy as outcomes Social welfare The welfare state Deﬁning the welfare state Comparing types of welfare state The development of the welfare state A consequence of industrialization or of political competition? Conclusion: Has the ‘golden age’ of the welfare state passed? FURTHER READING USEFUL WEBSITES ESSAY QUESTIONS
8 8 8 10 12 13 13 15 15 17 17 18 19 20 22 22 23 23 23 24 25 25 26
T HE ORIGI NS , CHARACTER, AND PO L I T I C S O F MO D E R N S O C I A L W E L F A R E S Y S T E MS
There are many, particularly social science, disciplines in which questions to do with social policy and the welfare systems of Britain and other countries are likely to be relevant. Th is is because spending on social policy is often the largest part of governments’ budgets and because welfare services are a large part of the economies of industrial societies. You may be using this book as a student on a social policy programme at university or college; or you may be taking a social policy module as part of professional training in social work or nursing; or because you have chosen a social policy option as part of a course in sociology, economics, politics, or history. Three terms are central to the subject matter of this book: ‘social policy’, ‘social welfare’, and ‘the welfare state’. This chapter provides an introduction to the meanings that are attached to these and the debates that surround them.
Learning outcomes After reading this chapter students will: 1 be able to describe...