Social Policy

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1.1 Identify key historical landmarks in social welfare focusing on the period upto 1945.

During the period of 1900s to 1945s, there was various significant landmarks which focused on the social welfare of the people in the United Kingdom. The Uk government launched various welfare programmes through the social welfare provision, financial abet or social security which refers to a programme having the main objective is to provide a minimum level of the income to the people who don’t have financial support, employment and those who are elderly and disabled. Many researchers reveal that the rate of the poverty is high so the government had a responsibility towards the moral obligation of the people and those projects were established to minimize the poverty level.

In the year 1901, there was the beginning of the poverty which was shown by the examination done by the social investigator named Seebohm Bowntree. His investigation was detailed in his book named ‘Poverty, A study of Town life regarding the poverty in York’ which indicated that 28% of the York population is suffered by the below poverty. Even the people who did full time job were likely to reach the starvation level due to the minimum payment in their job. An Act known by the name of The Old Pension Act was developed in 1908 for the modernization of the social welfare in the United Kingdom that provided pension for the non- contributory old age. The pension was paid 5s per a week only to the eligible. This leaded to the peoples budget which was regarded as the first budget in history of the Britain’s political life as it introduced various unprecedented taxes in the programme related with wealthy and radical social welfare. David Georgealso introduced the budget There was another act introduced in 1911 comprising of two parts: the national insurance Actpart I and part II. The National Insurance Part I distributed the national insurance scheme along with the provision of the medical benefits, also benefited to the workers for the free treatment of the tuberculosis by a panel doctor. on the other hand , the national insurance Act part II provided the people for the unemployment benefit for unlimited time. In order to cover the most of the workers from the age of 16 who are manual and non manual and get lower paid, an Act was extended known as Unemployment Insurance act 1920. The Old age and widows pension act 1940 decreased the pension age for the women of the age between 60 to 65 yrs old. There was a formation of the 1942 Report on Social Insurance and Allied Services on the basis for the post was reforms known as the welfare state followed by the identification of the five ”Giant Evils’’ which included: ignorance, squalor, want, disease and idleness proposed by Sir William Beveridge. This report covered the expansion of the National insurance and the foundation of the National Health Services.

During the year of 1945, Family Allowances Act 1945 was introduced in the Uk which became a first Law to offer the child benefit and empowered the Minister of National Insurance for the payment of an allowance of 5s per week for each child in a family rather than the eldest. This sum was made payable during the period of school age of the child and up to 18yrs if apprenticed or in full time school education.

1.2 How the changes in ideological approach since 1945 have impacted on contemporary social policies. There were significant changes due to the ideological approach made since 1945 that had an impact on the contemporary social policies. The world war II had an major effect on the provision and attitudes of the welfare. According to Alcock 2003- political ideology refers to ‘a concept that refers to the system of the beliefs within which an individual perceive all social phenomena. All the political ideology provides an account of the existing order, usually in the structure of a world view. The social welfare provision were...
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