Social Movements, Social Change, and Technology

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Chapter 11- Social Movements, Social Change, and Technology
1: The most basic manifest function of education is

the transmission of knowledge.

2: Which of the following is NOT a latent function of education?

bestowing status

3: Fifty years ago, a high school diploma was the minimum requirement for entry into the paid labor force of the United States. Today, a college diploma is virtually the bare minimum. This change reflects the process of

credentialism.

4: Suppose that a school places students in specific "ability groups" on the basis of test scores and other criteria. This reflects the practice of

tracking.

5: Which sociological perspective argues that the educational system socializes students into values dictated by the powerful?

conflict
The conflict perspective argues that the educational system socializes students into values dictated by the powerful.

6: Which sociological perspective takes a generally positive view of the bureaucratization of education?

functionalist
The functionalists take a generally positive view of the bureaucratization of education.

7: Which sociological perspective argues that the trend toward more centralized education has harmful consequences for disadvantaged people?

conflict
The conflict perspective argues that the trend toward more centralized education has harmful consequences for disadvantaged people. The standardization of educational curricula will generally reflect the values, interests, and lifestyles of the most powerful groups in our society and may ignore those of racial and ethnic minorities.

8: Clark and Trow have identified distinctive subcultures among college students. Among these, which subculture is primarily interested in career prospects and views college as a means of obtaining degrees for advancement?

vocational
The vocational subculture is primarily interested in career prospects and views college as a means of obtaining degrees for advancement.

9: Psychologist Robert Rosenthal and school principal Lenore Jacobs studied _____, the impact that a teacher's expectations about a student's performance may have on the student's actual achievements.

teacher-expectancy

10: Sociologist Max Weber noted five basic characteristics of bureaucracy, all of which are evident in the vast majority of schools, whether at the elementary, secondary, or even college level. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

shared decision-making

11: Socialist theory was refined in the writings of whom?

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Socialist theory was refined in the writings of Marx and Engels.

12: Which of the following believes that the central government, acting as the representative of the people, should make basic economic decisions?

socialists
Socialists believe that the central government, acting as the representative of the people, should make basic economic decisions. Therefore, government ownership of all major industries is a major feature of socialism as an ideal type.

13: As an ideal type, which economic system is one in which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people's ability to produce?

communism
As an ideal type, communism refers to an economic system in under which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people's ability to produce.

14: As of 2007, which one of the following countries below was NOT a socialist society ruled by Communist parties?     a. China

Japan
As of 2007, Japan was not a socialist society ruled by Communist parties.

15: Viewed from which sociological perspective does the unprecedented attention given to downsizing in the mid 1990s reflect the continuing importance of social class in the United States?

conflict

16: What term is used to refer to an economic system in which the means of production are largely in private hands, and the main incentive for...
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