Due Date: 12/10/2011
– Fundamentals of Event Management
How to measure Social Impacts and their influence on host communities
Events like the FIFA World cup or the Olympics are well known by everyone and result in a variety of impacts on the host community. Most of the researches towards these impacts are focused on the economical effects, but another important consequence is mostly unexplored, the social impact towards the host community. This paper explores the social impacts of events and describes methods how to do this. Firstly it will outline the Social Impact Assessment method and secondly the Social Impact Evaluation method. Moreover positive and negative social impacts of special events and festivals will be analysed. Furthermore it will emerge these impacts on various examples like the Olympics or the FIFA World Cups. Keywords
Social Impact Assessment, Social Impact Evaluation, Social Impact, Olympics, World cup
Special events and Festivals play an important role in development of regions. The impacts vary from measurably economical and touristic impacts up to intangible impacts, such as social impacts on the host regions. While there are a huge number of scholars developing models to define the economical impact of special events on host communities (Gitelson, Guadagnolo, & Moore 1988; Long & Perdue 1990; Yardley, MacDonald, & Clarke 1990; Faulkner 1994; Mules & Faulkner 1996; Anderson & Solberg 1999; Burgan & Mules 2000; Rees 2000 in Small, Edwards & Sheridan 2005, p.66 ), there is a lack of empirical research made on the socio-cultural impacts of this events (Ritchie & Lyons 1990; Soutar & McLeod 1993; Mihalik 2000; Fredline & Faulkner 2000; Fredline & Faulkner 2002). This is because “the success of a festival is commonly measured in terms of its economic contribution to event stakeholders, the community and the region” (Douglas et al 2001, p. 364). Therefore the purpose of this article is the social impact of special events and festivals on host communities. But before the social impacts of events and festivals can be analysed it is necessary to define the key words “social impact”, “festival”, “special event” and “social capital”. Moreover this paper will outline negative and positive social impacts. Furthermore it will explain different models to calculate the “intangible“ social impact and give an overview of the social impacts on different host communities. The South Australian Tourism Commission (1997 p.2) defines a festival as followed: Festivals are celebrations of something the local community wishes to share and which involves the public as participants in the experience. Festivals must have a prime objective a maximum amount of people participation, which must be an experience that is different or broader than day to day living. Special events are explained by Getz (2005, p.16) who says that special events are events that take place outside of the regular event calendar. They play an important role for communities to create a possibility of social exchange. Furthermore, according to Tassiopoulos (2005), special events enrich the image of communities. The most important social impact and special event can have is the augmentation of social capital, which is defined by Portes (1998, p.7):
Whereas economic capital is in people´s bank accounts and human capital is inside their heads, social capital inheres in the structure of their relationships. To possess social capital a person must be related to others, and it is others, not himself, who are the actual source of his or her advantage. Social Impacts and Events
Even thought the economic impact of events has been researched on a great field, the “intangible” social effects these events have are not measured this much (Chalip 2006; Wood 2006), but there is a growing field of research towards the socio-cultural impact events have to communities....