Social Groups and Formal Organization

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Social Groups and Formal Organizations
Groups- People who think of themselves as belonging together and who interact with one another are the essence of life in society Aggregate- Individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging together.* People who happen to be in the same place at the same time. Category- People who have similar characteristics

Charles Horton Cooley- called primary groups the springs of life. ( Person, liking or loving you ) Primary Groups- A group characterized by intimate, long-term , face to face association and cooperation. These groups refer to family, which play a key role in the development of the self. Secondary Groups- compared with primary groups, a larger, relatively temporarily, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity. Robert Michel- “The Iron Law of Oligarchy” (many are ruled by a few) – sociologists Robert Michel’s coined this term to refer to how organizations come to be dominated by a small, self -perpetuating elite. In Group- (We) Groups towards which we feel loyalty

Out Groups- (They) Groups towards which we feel antagonism. Reference Groups- (Better/Perfection) Groups we refer to when we evaluate ourselves. Social Network- (tends to maintain a status quo rather than enhance mobility) – the social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together. Max Weber- “Characteristics of Bureaucracies”-

Bureaucracies-is a formal organization with a hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor, emphasis on impersonality of positions and written rules, communications and records. Peter Principle- a tongue-in cheek-observation that the members of an organization are promoted for their accomplishments until they reach their level of incompetence, there they cease to be promoted, remaining at the level at which they can no longer do good work . Mortification-
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