Social Forestry: Issues Containing Deforestation and Afforestation
Submitted to- Prof. T. Shanthi Malaichamy
ByAshish Dalvi Shashank Hegde Dhiraj Dubey Gayatri Sisodiya - 24 - 27 - 32 - 39
Siddhesh Hemmady - 28
Introduction Research Paper Deforestation Afforestation Government Initiatives Solutions Conclusion 1 4 5 8 10 12 13
Social forestry programs in India have grown in importance and scale and now constitute a major element in India's overall programme of rural development. From modest beginnings over a decade ago, there has been an almost exponential growth in the human and financial resources devoted to social forestry. During the sixth Five Year Plan period which covered the first half of the 1980s approximately Rs.10 billion (one thousand crore) or nearly US$ 1 billion was spent on social forestry activities. . The term social forestry is difficult to define precisely, but is generally understood to mean tree-growing (including associated products, e.g. bamboo, grasses, legumes) for the purpose of rural development. As social forestry has a rural development focus and is heavily dependent on the active participation of people, it is also known as "forestry for local community development" or "participatory forestry". An up to date and comprehensive discussion of these terms and the role of social forestry in rural development is to be found in Tree Growing by Rural People, FAO Forestry Paper, 64, 1985. Although a wide range of activities are included in social forestry, five main components can be distinguished in India. With variations, they are: 1. Farm forestry (tree growing on private land), 2. Farmer leasehold, 3. Village woodlots or community forestry, 4. Strip plantations alongside roads, canals, railways, etc., and 5. Reforestation or rehabilitation of degraded forest areas. Social forestry programs usually include one or more of these components. There are also distinctions between and within these components depending on who owns the land on which the trees are being planted (e.g. private farmers, private industries, municipalities, forest departments, revenue departments, etc.) or who is responsible for the planting (e.g. farmers, villages, cooperatives, voluntary agencies, rural development departments, schools, etc.). Although these distinctions are sometimes blurred, all forms of social forestry are differentiated from commercial or territorial forestry by the 1
involvement of the rural population in decision-making, management and as beneficiaries. Farm forestry is tree planting undertaken by individual households on their own land or land they have rented from others. Tree seedlings may be planted in blocks (small plantations), on field boundaries or around homesteads. They may be intermixed with agricultural crops in several forms of agro forestry, or they may be planted alone on either agricultural land or uncultivable wastelands. Farmer leasehold or tree palta denotes a kind of farm forestry in which poor farmers or landless labourers are given leases to tracts of public land on which, with varying degrees of public support, they are constrained to grow trees. Village woodlots are small plantations on communal or government lands, operated by or on behalf of the village, for the benefit of the village as a whole. although there may be special arrangements to which provide preferential treatment to the under-privileged. Strip plantations are relatively narrow areas along the sides of roads, canals, railways, and rivers, established by the Government (usually the Forest Department) with the intention of providing the benefits of forest products to local people and to serve as demonstration areas. The reforestation or rehabilitation of degraded forests refers to large plantations on public lands which have been severely degraded and which are often in environmentally critical areas. Such plantations mayor...