Social Dialects

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Social dialects
Rothstain and S.Rothstain (2009), they difined dialect a an aspect of language that refers to variation in pronunciation, words and, grammar of a specific language and as a part of every language, resulting from geographic, occupational and social differences. Read(1986), said that dialect can be divided into social and regional varieties. Regional dialects are difened geographically; social dialect are difined by socioeconomic and sociocultural characteristics.Black English is the best-known example of American social dialect. George Yule(2006),this refers to the traditional dialects tended to concentrate on the speech of people in rural áreas, the study of social dialects has been mainly concerned with speakers in towns and cities.In the study of dialects, it is social class that is mainly used to difined groups of speakers as having something in common. The two main groups groups are generally indentified as “middle class”, those who have more years of education and perform non manual work, and “ working class “, ando those who have fewer years of education and perform manual work of some kind. When we talk about “ working-class-speech, we are refers to social dialects. The terms ‘upper’ and ‘lower are used to further sudividethe groups, mainly on an economic basis, making ‘upper middle class speech’ another type of social dialects. As in every dialec studies, only certain features of language used are treated as relevant in the analysis of social dialects. These features are pronunciations,words of structures that are regularly used in one form by working class speakers and in another form by middle class speakers. In Edinburgh, Scotland, for example, the Word home is regularly pronunced as [he:m], as if rhymnig with name, among lower-working-class speakers, and as [ho:m], as if rhyming with foam, among lower-middle-class speakers. It i a mal difference in pronuanciation, but it is an indicator of social status. A more familiar example might be the verb ain’t, as in I ain’t finished yet, wich is generally used more often in working-class-peech tan in the middle class speech. Studies of social dialects typically report how often speakers in a particular group use a certain form rather tan find that only one group or the other uses the form. Finegan and Rickford(2004),in American society, the idea of social dialect tends has a strong asociation with the varieties of English spoken by socially ubordinate groups even though, technically speaking, the varieties spoken by socially dominant groups are certainly social varietie a well. The varieties of English associated with thee socially subordinate groups are often referred to as vernacular dialects. The term vernacular language is used to refer to local or native languages of common comunication that contrast with the oficial standard language of a multilingual country. Part of the reason that the term social dialect is so strongly asociatedwith vernacular varieties is related to the fact that the speach of low-statu gropu in American society tends to be much more socially marked than that of high-status groups. To a large extent, vernacular varieties are characterized by the presence of socially conspicuou and negatively valued structures so called ‘nonstandard dialect structures’. By the same token,socially favored arietie of englih tend to be characterized by the absence of negatively valued,or socially stigmatized, feature rather than by the presence of soccially prestigious feature.in fact, one posible definition of so-called “standard english’’ charectarizes it as a variety of englih that does not exhibit socially stigmatized structures of english, rather than a variety typified by aby particular set of positevely valued in structurs (Wolfram and Shilling-Estes 1998). Accordingly, the notion of social dialects in American Society has come to be associated with the vernacular varieties spoken by low-tatus groups. The...
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