The purpose of this research paper is to address Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) and the various issues associated with the group. AAPIs come from approximately 50 countries and ethnic groups, each with distinct cultures, traditions, and histories. Asian Americans have origins from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent (Social Security, 2011). Pacific Islanders are people having origins in Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. Many Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have lived in the U.S. for quite a few generations, but there also are a high number of recent immigrants who contribute to the assortment in language and culture among this group. As with any group of individuals, gender roles, socioeconomic status, and a sense of belonging can have an impact on this group of individuals. This research paper also provides information regarding the culture, communication patterns, and other important areas of development concerning these individuals. It is important counselors have a clear understanding of who this group of people is, in order to effectively counsel them.
Social and Cultural Premise
The Chinese are the Asian ethnic group with the lengthiest history in the United States and were the first Asian ethnic group to be recruited to the West during the 1840’s according to Robinson-Wood (2009). It is cited the Chinese were perceived to be more suited for “cleaning wild lands and raising every type of agricultural product (Robinson-Wood, 2009). The working and residential conditions for the Chinese were harsh at this time; however they remained motivated to come to America. Political instability, ethnic conflicts, and flooding of their crops were also factors encouraging the migration (Robinson-Wood, 2009). Life was difficult for both Chinese women and men during this time. Shortly following the arrival of the Chinese, 141 Japanese men, women, and children arrived in Hawaii in 1868. The Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, and Puerto Ricans who came later were recruited to work on the Hawaiian sugar cane plantations. The Japanese migrated to the United States during Japan’s period of rapid modernization. In 1900 the U.S. Congress passed the Organic Act creating the Territory of Hawaii, which allowed laborers to have greater power in organizing themselves more effectively (Robinson-Wood, 2009). This was done despite this area being represented by Chinese and Japanese Hawaiians. The Japanese resisted many of the changes and encouraged planters to look for new labor sources, primarily from Korea and the Philippines. Congress also passed the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 prior to the arrival of other Asians into the United States. This Act restricted the “immigration of all Chinese labors, lunatics, and idiots into the United States for 10 year period” according to the information cited (Robinson-Wood, 2009). This is the only law in U.S. immigration that ordered an entire group of people of a specific nationality to be banned from the United States. On December 7, 1941 the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor a major base of the U.S. Navy. Bases in the Philippines, Guam, the Midway Islands, and other ports in the Pacific were also attacked (Robinson-Wood, 2009). This attack prompted the passing of Executive Order 9066 authorizing relocation of the Japanese. The military demarcated the entire West Coast, home to the majority of Americans of Japanese ancestry or citizenship, as a military area. In comparison with the Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, and Asian Indians, the Vietnamese are the most recent immigrant group to arrive in the United States (Robinson-Wood, 2009). Between April and December 1975, 100,000 refugees from Vietnam and Cambodia were admitted to the United States as parolees, as announced by the U.S. attorney general according to (Robinson-Wood, 2009). The Ford Administration supported the arrival of Vietnamese immigrants and passed the Indochina Migration and...
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