Objective and purpose: the purpose of this experiment is to convert a primary alcohol to an alkyl bromide using a Sn2 Reaction. Investigate some factors that influence the rate of Sn1 reactions. The second part of this lab will focus more on how unlike factors influence the rate of reactions in anSN1 reactions. The factors that we will be inspecting are the leaving groups, Cl- vs.Br. The structure of the alkyl group, tertiary versus secondary and the polarity of the solvent, 40 percent 2-propanol versus 60 percent 2-propanol. Introduction: The Substitution reactions involve an atom or atoms are replacing one another atom. Many of these reactions require a nucleophile. Nucleophiles have unshared pair of electrons. Weak bases are considered good living groups in Nucleophilic substitution reactions. There are two mechanisms for these reactions are SN1 and SN2. Sn2 Mechanisms the leaving group are regularly weak bases. The carbon group the reaction goes faster when the nucleophile approaches the carbon. The nucleophiles are the better as the base gets stronger. The solvent favors one towards a polar aprotic solvents. Sn1 Mechanisms the leaving group must be a weak base. The carbon group is part of the rate determining step. The reaction goes faster when the there are stable carbonations. The solvent favors one towards a polar protic solvents. Procedure: synthesizing 1-bromobutane
1. Place boiling chip, 1-butanols, and HBr solution into test tube 2. Slowly add concentrated H2SO4
3. Heat at reflux for one hour
4. Allow the reactions mixture to cool, then separate the acid layer 5. Wash the organic layer with water, aqueous NaHCO3, Then Water again 6. Dry the organic layer with anhydrous
7. Purify the product by distillation
8. Characterize the product by boiling point, refractive index, density, or IR...