Assignment set - 1
1. What are the components of systems productivity? Explain how CAD and CIM help in improving productivity.
Production management encompasses all activities which go into conversion of a sate of inputs into outputs which are useful to meet human needs. It involves the identification of the perquisite materials, knowledge of the processes, and installation of equipments necessary to convert or transform the materials to products. System productivity is generally expressed as the ratio of outputs to inputs. Productivity can be calculated for a single operation, a functional unit, a department division or a plant. It is a measure of the efficiency of the system and looks at the economies achieved during the processes. Every process will have number of contributors-people machines, facilitating goods, ancillary equipments, technology, etc. Which help in achieving maximum productivity - each element attempting to enhance the contribution of other elements? Enhancement of productivity is achieved by either reducing the inputs for the same output or increasing the output by using the same input.
Opportunities exist at all stages of the workflow.
The entire system of introduce measures for increasing productivity. However in actual manufacturing situations, the inefficiencies will have cascading effect in hampering productivity. Communication, effective review processes and innovative methods will ensure optimization of resources. Capital productivity: Capital deployed in plant, machinery, buildings and the distribution system as well as working capital are components of the oust of manufacture and need to be productive. Demand fluctuations, uncertainties of production owing to breakdowns and inventories being crated drag the productivity down. Therefore, strategies are needed to maximize the utilization of the funds allotted towards capital. Adapting to new technologies, outsourcing and balancing of the workstations to reduce the proportion of idle times on equipments are the focus of this section.
Computers in design and manufacturing applications make it possible to remove much of the tedium and manual labor involved. For example, the many design specifications, blueprints, material lists, and other documents needed to build complex machines can require thousands of highly technical and accurate drawings and charts. If the engineers decide structural components need to be changed, all of these plans and drawings must be changed. Prior to CAD/CAM, human designers and draftspersons had to change them manually, a time consuming and error-prone process. When a CAD system is used, the computer can automatically evaluate and change all corresponding documents instantly. In addition, by using interactive graphics workstations, designers, engineers, and architects can create models or drawings, increase or decrease sizes, rotate or change them at will, and see results instantly on screen.
CAD is particularly valuable in space programs, where many unknown design variables are involved. Previously, engineers depended upon trial-and-error testing and modification, a time consuming and possibly life-threatening process. However, when aided by computer simulation and testing, a great deal of time, money, and possibly lives can be saved. Besides its use in the military, CAD is also used in civil aeronautics, automotive, and data processing industries.
CAM, commonly utilized in conjunction with CAD, uses computers to communicate instructions to automated machinery. CAM techniques are especially suited for manufacturing plants, where tasks are repetitive, tedious, or dangerous for human workers.
Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM), a term popularized by Joseph Harrington in 1975, is also known as Autofacturing. CIM is a programmable manufacturing method designed to link CAD, CAM, industrial robotics, and machine manufacturing using unattended processing...