MB0038 –Management Process and Organizational Behavior - 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1127)
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Q1. State the characteristics of management.
A1. Following are the characteristics of management:-
Organized Activities: Management is a process of organized activities. Groups of people cannot be involved in the performance of activities without organized activities. Management comes into existence where a group of people are involved in achieving a common objective. The organized activities may take a variety of forms ranging from a tightly structured organization to a loosely-knit organization. Existence of Objectives: The existence of objectives is a basic criterion of every human organization. The organizational objectives are the desired state of affairs which an organization attempts to realize. This realization of objectives is sought through the coordinated efforts of the people constituting an organization. Decision-making: Management process involves decision making at all levels. Decision-making describes the process by which a course of action is selected as the way to deal with a specific problem. If there is only one alternative, the question of decision making does not arise. The quality of alternatives which a manger selects determines the organization’s performance, and the future of the organization. Relationship among resources: The essence of management is integration of various organizational resources. Resources include money, machine, materials, and people. Management is concerned with the proper utilization of human resources which, in turn, utilize other resources. Working with and through people: Management involves working with people and getting organizational objectives achieved through them. Working through people is interpreted in terms of assigning activities to subordinates. Q2. What are the 14 principles of management of Henri Fayol?
A2. The 14 Management Principles from Henri Fayol (1841-1925) are: 1. Division of Work. Specialization allows the individual to build up experience, and to continuously improve his skills. Thereby he can be more productive. 2. Authority. The right to issue commands, along with which must go the balanced responsibility for its function. 3. Discipline. Employees must obey, but this is two-sided: employees will only obey orders if management plays their part by providing good leadership. 4. Unity of Command. Each worker should have only one boss with no other conflicting lines of command. 5. Unity of Direction. People engaged in the same kind of activities must have the same objectives in a single plan. This is essential to ensure unity and coordination in the enterprise. Unity of command does not exist without unity of direction but does not necessarily flows from it. 6. Subordination of individual interest (to the general interest). Management must see that the goals of the firms are always paramount. 7. Remuneration. Payment is an important motivator although by analyzing a number of possibilities, Fayol points out that there is no such thing as a perfect system. 8. Centralization (or Decentralization). This is a matter of degree depending on the condition of the business and the quality of its personnel. 9. Scalar chain (Line of Authority). A hierarchy is necessary for unity of direction. But lateral communication is also fundamental, as long as superiors know that such communication is taking place. Scalar chain refers to the number of levels in the hierarchy from the ultimate authority to the lowest level in the organization. It should not be over-stretched and consist of too-many levels. 10. Order. Both material order and social order are necessary. The former minimizes lost time and useless handling of materials. The latter is achieved through organization and selection. 11. Equity. In running a business a ‘combination of kindliness and justice’...