using Smart Meters in AMI
arXiv:1208.2321v1 [cs.NI] 11 Aug 2012
M. Anas, N. Javaid, A. Mahmood, S. M. Raza, U. Qasim‡ , Z. A. Khan§ ‡ University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada
Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS
Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
§ Faculty of Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
Abstract—Global energy crises are increasing every moment. Every one has the attention towards more and more energy
production and also trying to save it. Electricity can be produced through many ways which is then synchronized on a main grid
for usage. The main issue for which we have written this survey paper is losses in electrical system. Weather these losses are technical or non-technical. Technical losses can be calculated easily, as we discussed in section of mathematical modeling that how to calculate technical losses. Where as non-technical losses can be evaluated if technical losses are known. Theft in electricity produce non-technical losses. To reduce or control theft one can save his economic resources. Smart meter can be the best option to minimize electricity theft, because of its high security, best efﬁciency, and excellent resistance towards many of theft ideas in electromechanical meters. So in this paper we have mostly concentrated on theft issues.
Index Terms—Electricity theft, Smart meter, Non-Technical
losses, Advanced Metering Infrastructure.
I. I NTRODUCTION
Electricity, generated through many ways, is synchronized
on a single bus bar of the grid for transmission. Before
utilization of electricity, it passes from certain phases. It is ﬁrst generated, step upped in transformer deck, passed from switch yard for transmission through power lines. After transmission it is distributed for utilization to the customers. This energy needs to be billed as well. Usually two types of devices are mainly used for billing procedure.
1) Electromechanical KWh meters.
2) Smart meters.
Our energy is strained to the utmost now a day, so using
energy efﬁciently is one of the issues which need urgent
attention. That is why electricity is to be dealt with great care. As for as knowledge is concerned there is no such password
which can not be cracked but best password is the one which
is being cracked in a larger period of time. This is one basic reason that whole world is shifting from analog devices to
digital devices. That is why analog electromechanical meters are being substituted by smart meters. Digital devices provide better security and controlling options. The better detection and controlling of losses is one of the reasons for substitution of smart meters.
Every thing occurs for a reason, so the reason for this
substitution is losses in electrical systems. There are mainly two types of losses.
1) Technical losses.
2) Non-Technical/Commercial losses.
In developing countries electricity theft is a common practice specially in remote areas, as they do not pay utility bills to a government company in case of electricity and gas as well. To solve this problem governments must think of an idea to
provide help in terms of subsidy to manage this issue.
In section-II related work and motivation is explained. In
section-III of this paper losses are discussed which are caused due to electricity theft. In section-IV ways of communication are discussed, to send data from end user to the grid. In
section-V causes and effects of electricity theft is explained. Some mathematical techniques are discussed in section VI. In section VII we have concluded this paper.
II. R ELATED W ORK
In [1,3] authors explained theft control very well in a sense that they proposed a model. In this model they calculated NTL in external control section, and if NTL > 5%, legal customers are disconnected for some interval. Harmonic generator is
operated in this time period, which destroys the electrical
equipment of all...