Smoking: Nicotine and Health Locus

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Smoking

The first article for review is titled Self-efficacy, Health Locus of Control, and Smoking. This article studies how the participants confidence levels and health locus prior to entering treatment predicts results of the quitting program. The program is called "Fresh Start" and was conducted in Victoria, Australia. It consisted of three groups:

(A) those who made an attempt (Stop for one day),
(B) those who met criteria in A, and did not smoke for duration of program,
(C) those who abstained for six months.

Confidence was tested by questionnaires (post, during and at 6-month period). Health Locus is defined by how the participant attributed health outcomes (internal, external or by chance). The results of this experiment showed that those individuals across the three groups who had high levels of self-efficacy was related not to the number of attempts to quit, but the success of the attempts, while "the role of Health Locus of Control [was found to be] complex needing further investigation" (Stuart, Borland, & McMurray, 1994, p. 1).

The second article for review is titled, Sensation Seeking, Nicotine Dependence, and Smoking Motivation in Female and Male Smokers. This study was conducted using a sample of French smokers (36 F, 60 M) and non-smokers (23 F, 45 M). The goal of the experiment was to study "the relationship between sensation seeking and smoking" (p. 221). The objectives of the study was (a) to see if smokers are higher in sensation seeking than their non-smoking counterparts, (b) to see if there are any gender forces in smoking and sensation seeking, and (c) to examine "in each sex, the nature of the relationship between sensation seeking and smoking" (p. 221).

These three items were measured on four sub-scales, they are:
1) The Disinhibition subscale (DIS) - shows desire to be
socially open, extroverted
2)The Thrill and Adventure Seeking subscale (TAS) - shows desire, extreme physical activities.
3)The Experience Seeking subscale (ES) - shows search for new and exciting life experiences.
4)The Boredom Susceptibility subscale (BS)

After the evaluation of multiple questionnaires was completed, results of the subscale analysis was as follows:

(a)Smokers score higher in sensation seeking regardless of sex, than non- smokers.

(b)Women scored higher scores than men in the ES subscale (trend).

(c)Men scored higher on AIS and TAS scale than women.

(d)ES and BS subscales had a significant main effect for
smoking status.

This study concludes by showing "that smokers score higher on measures of sensation seeking than do non-smokers" (p. 224). This aids the belief that sensation seekers may be more open to become dependent

on smoking, as opposed to
those who score low on sensation seeking activities. Finally, women scoring higher on the ES subscale, was attributed to mass media and emerging cultural trends that have lured more women to be independent and more experience seeking than in the past.

The next article in the subject of smoking is titled Measuring Readiness and Motivation to Quit Smoking Among Women in Public Health Clinics. This study was a pilot program to test as an instrument in the stage readiness and motivation of 495 women of lower socioeconomic class in Chicago. Since this segment of the smoking population has not declined when other have, it reveals the reasoning behind the study and therefore it is necessary to "develop and validate an instrument to measure progress across all stages of readiness" (p. 497) to aid motivation.

The instrument spoke of is a questionnaire by Diclemente, et al., (1991) and Prochaska, et al. (1992), modified to meet the literacy level of female subjects of the lower socioeconomic level. The questionnaire was given to smokers "in prenatal, family planning, and well-child health clinics" (p. 498). The stages of Prochaska and Diclemente's were expanded to...
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