Smoking and Mood

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An analysis of the potential causal relationship between smoking and mood fluctuation

Introduction
Subsequent research suggests that a well established relationship exists between smoking and mood fluctuation, particularly depression. Many researchers in the past have put forward numerous reasons to why this relationship seems to exist. For instance, nicotine has been shown to be a very strong drug which produces major depressant effects. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1990). Furthermore, studies conducted by Coney and Glassman (1990) propose that smoking cessation actually provokes depressed feelings in those with a previous history of depression. Also it has been shown that the surfacing of these depressive symptoms during cessation is linked with the likelihood of being able to successfully stop smoking (Hughes, 1992) and the likelihood of relapse (Shiffman 1982) As well as being a depressant, nicotine can produce feelings of euphoria and elevations in mood. Previous research (Carmody,1989) suggests that some people may smoke to sooth their depressed mood. However more recent research (Waters & Sutton,2000) have found that elevated moods occur only within the first few weeks, following the cessation of smoking. Therefore due to the previous research outlined above, leads to our hypothesis: H0: There will be no correlation between smoking cessation and mood fluctuation. H1: There will be a correlation between smoking cessation and mood fluctuation.

Method
This study consisted of 120 participants, 54 males and 66 females, who were randomly drawn from a larger data set. The participants were aged between (include ages and mean and standard deviation). The participants agreed to attempt to stop smoking for the length of the study (4 weeks) and afterwards reported how successful they were. There were three outcomes: 1. Complete abstinence

2. Smoked only a few cigarettes
3. Started smoking again
For this study an...
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