Smoking and Drinking

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 267
  • Published : April 26, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Smoking during pregnancy has serious implications regarding the proper development of children. Studies have shown that this habit impacts behavioral patterns which may be evident in the increased global conduct and attention disorders in children. Research methods took the form of issued questionnaires to pregnant mothers over a four year period. The lifestyles of the mothers were closely examined. Children’s motor and cognitive skills were also examined using the standards of the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MCSA). Studies revealed that there was high consistency in maternal smoking. The verbal abilities and memories of these victimized children were reduced as a result of maternal smoking.

Though it is not clear as to whether most of the damages occurred during pre or post natal stages, it is evident that tobacco smoking for example affects the natural development of the fetus. Epidemiologic studies have also shown that exposure to tobacco which was generally smoked in the early stages of life impacted development of the brain. Smoking affects the nervous system of developing infants as well. The distinction of post and pre natal effects of smoking was harder to determine as the sample did not include any mother who smoked during pregnancy but did not smoke after. This is said to have impacted development as studies revealed that people affected by smoking tend to be less progressive and thus often uneducated. The study was based on a birth cohort of asthmatic studies in the Menorca Island (located along the coast of Spain) in the mid 1997.

The study in Menorca using the MCSA consisted of five sub areas: verbal information processing, quantitative assessment which took into consideration the frequency of smoking, the division of mothers and fathers into two groups which separated those who smoked from the ones who didn’t. The fathers were examined as a smoking variable as much as mothers were in the initial stages of pregnancy. A Wald...
tracking img