The use of cigarette smoking is a major aspect of our society. Smoking is used in socializing, relaxing, and even entertaining. Smoking tobacco is sold in a variety of options, the most popular being the cigarette. This report examines the irreversible effects of cigarette smoking on various organ systems and challenges the notion that a few years of exposure to smoking will have no lasting adverse consequences. This is to discourage young people from taking up this deadly habit by appealing to their common sense and better judgment, thereby allowing them to choose for themselves not to smoke. The knowledge of irreversible effects of smoking on various organ systems, can save your life. I will not recite the familiar litany of smoking-related health problems such as emphysema, mouth and throat cancer, and genito-urinary tract infections. Rather, I will show that smoking cigarettes for as few as five years can have a permanent effect on the lungs, heart and circulatory system, and reproductive system. Despite smoking having irreversible effects; it would be foolish for a smoker to conclude that after years of smoking, quitting would do him no good. Many studies prove that tobacco-related health effects decline substantially as time away from smoking increases; some of the benefits begin within months after quitting. After years of exposure to the damaging effects of tobacco, smokers that decide to quit, must realize that they have to be realistic in their expectations of recouping their health. Cigarettes damage the body gradually and insidiously in a number of different ways. One popular argument the scientific community often makes encourage smokers to quit stems from the conjecture that all of the health effects of smoking are reversible shortly after cessation, Readiness to Quit Smoking and Quit Attempts Among Australian Mental Health Inpatients Abstract
Introduction: Mental health inpatients smoke at higher rates than general population smokers. However, provision of nicotine-dependence treatment in inpatient settings is low, with barriers to the provision of such care including staff views that patients do not want to quit. This paper reports the findings of a survey of mental health inpatients at a psychiatric hospital in New South Wales, Australia, assessing smoking and quitting motivations and behaviors. Methods: Smokers (n = 97) were surveyed within the inpatient setting using a structured survey tool, incorporating the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Reasons for Quitting Scale, Readiness and Motivation to Quit Smoking Questionnaire, and other measures of smoking and quitting behavior. Results: Approximately 47% of smokers reported having made at least one quit attempt within the past 12 months, despite nearly three quarters (71.2%) being classified as in a “precontemplative” stage of change. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed that self-reporting “not enjoying being a smoker” and having made a quit attempt in the last 12 months predicted having advanced beyond a precontemplative stage of change. A high self-reported desire to quit predicted a quit attempt having been made in the last 12 months. Conclusions: The majority of smokers had made several quit attempts, with a large percentage occurring recently, suggesting that the actual quitting behavior should be considered as an important indication of the “desire to quit.” This paper provides further data supporting the assertion that multimodal smoking cessation interventions combining psychosocial and pharmacological support should be provided to psychiatric inpatients who smoke. Introduction
Smoking rates among persons with a mental illness are 2–3 times higher than in the general population . Smokers with mental illness are also more dependent on nicotine, less likely to quit smoking, and more likely to suffer smoking-related illnesses and increased medical morbidity than other smokers. The highest rates of...
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