Text Preview

Hewlett-Packard

[Type the company address]

[Type the phone number]

[Type the fax number]

[Pick the date]

Hewlett-Packard

[Type the company address]

[Type the phone number]

[Type the fax number]

[Pick the date]

HP

[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.]

HP

[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.]

Table of Contents

Introduction:2

Integrator and Differentiator4

The design of the circuit: \4

The MATLAB code : Sine wave :7

Square wave7

Operational Amplifier Based Function Generator

Introduction:

In these papers I will talk about op-amp to make function generator, and generate square, triangle and sine waves. Op-amp (operational amplifier) is a fundamental active element of analog circuit design. The ﬁrst op amps were vacuum-tube circuits consuming lots of space and energy but Modern op amps are fabricated as integrated circuits that bare little resemblance to the early circuits. Today, op amps are monolithic integrated circuits, highly efficient and cost effective. The term operational ampliﬁer evolved from original applications in analog computation where these circuits were used to perform various mathematical operations such as summation and integration. The fig (1) is about op-amp :

V+: non-inverting input

V−: inverting input

V out: output

VS+: positive power supply

VS−: negative power supply

Figure 1

Figure 1

And we can simplify this and how will this work by just get the brief about what inside the triangular! Let’s have look to the fig (2)

The first part above is inverting input, second is non-inverting input …etc.

Figure 2

Figure 2

We can say that it is so default to deal with, this circuit needs circuit representations to help us to solve on it. The circuit representation on next figure

Figure 3

The are many type of op-amp and I need for this papers Integrator and Differentiator only for build the function generator then what are Integrator and Differentiator?

Integrator and Differentiator

We need an explaining an inverting amplifier for go inside inverting amplifier: inverting amplifier inverts and scales the input signal. There are many uses for the inverting amplifier configuration. Two other uses of the inverting configuration are the integrator and the differentiator. The integrator (as the name suggests) integrates the input signal over time. The integral of the input is the output waveform. And the counterpart of the integrator is the differentiator which as the name implies again, differentiates the input as the output. These two configurations as well as the input and output waveforms are shown below:

The design of the circuit: \

Figure 4 circuit

Figure 5 rectangle

Figure 6

Figure 7

The MATLAB code:

Sine wave:

--------------------------------

%generate sine wave

f=1; %frequency of the sine wave

t=0:.002:6;% smapling frequency to 2 kz, 6 second timeline

x=sin(2*pi*f*t); % define sine wave

plot(t,x); % plot sine wave

axis([0 6 -1.5 1.5]);

title('sine wave');

xlabel('Time,S');

ylabel('Amplitude,Hz')

-------------------------------------------------

Square wave:

-----------------------------------

%generate square wave

f=1; %frequency of the square wave

t=0:.002:6;% smapling frequency to 2 kz, 6 second timeline

x=square(2*pi*f*t); % define square wave

plot(t,x); % plot square wave

axis([0 6 -1.5 1.5]);

title('sine wave');

xlabel('Time,S');

ylabel('Amplitude,Hz');...