Should it be forbidden to place on the market “bad loans” as securities? Bad loans should be securitized but based on conditions. The bankers should keep the investment bank/ investors aware of the risk involved in the securities and sell them . However, the returns on the bad loans are generally more and the investors who want to take risks can go for it. The advantage for banks are that the risk of bad debt is shared with the investor and also increasing its liquidity. Banks can also earn profits through securitization.

Which are the corporate needs satisfied by secondary capital markets?

1. Taking loans against the shares from the banks
2. Decrease in transaction costs during takeover of a company by any other company. These costs are more in-case of a family run business. 3. Price accuracy can reduce the agency costs of management, and make hostile takeover a less risky proposition and thus move capital into the hands of better managers. 4. Accurate share price aids the efficient allocation of debt finance whether debt offerings or institutional borrowing.

a. Why are closed-end funds crucial for financing SMEs?
1. Decrease risk of the existing investors
2. Raise funds for expansion of the SME

b. Why open-end funds do not constitute a feasible financing option for SMEs?

c.Private Equity Funds operate in which Allocative Channels? Indirect finance: The ultimate borrowers are normally unknown to the ultimate lenders. A lender faces less risk in indirect lending because, as a specialist in the field, the intermediary normally has a well-established credit standing.

...NATIONAL BOARD FOR HIGHER MATHEMATICS
AND
HOMI BHABHA CENTRE FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION
TATA INSTITUTE OF FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH
Pre-REGIONAL MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 2013
Mumbai Region
October 20, 2013
QUESTION PAPER SET: A
• There are 20 questions in this question paper. Each question carries 5 marks.
• Answer all questions.
• Time allotted: 2 hours.
QUESTIONS
1. What is the smallest positive integer k such that k(33 + 43 + 53 ) = an for some positive
integers a and n, with n > 1?
n
√
2. Let Sn =
k=0
1
√ . What is the value of
k+1+ k
99
1
?
n=1 Sn + Sn−1
3. It is given that the equation x2 + ax + 20 = 0 has integer roots. What is the sum of all
possible values of a?
4. Three points X, Y, Z are on a striaght line such that XY = 10 and XZ = 3. What is the
product of all possible values of Y Z?
5. There are n − 1 red balls, n green balls and n + 1 blue balls in a bag. The number of ways of
choosing two balls from the bag that have different colours is 299. What is the value of n?
6. Let S(M ) denote the sum of the digits of a positive integer M written in base 10. Let N be
the smallest positive integer such that S(N ) = 2013. What is the value of S(5N + 2013)?
7. Let Akbar and Birbal together have n marbles, where n > 0.
Akbar says to Birbal, “ If I give you some marbles then you will have twice as many marbles
as I will have.” Birbal says to Akbar, “ If I give you some marbles then you will have thrice
as many marbles as I will have.”
What is the minimum...

...outweigh any supposed benefits. I see nothing wrong, however, with their use in upper level mathematic courses such as trigonometry and calculus, where computational competence can (one hopes) be assumed. Nor do I see anything wrong with their use in nonmathematical courses that entail complex calculations; chemistry is a prime example.
I am not against machines’ doing some of our thinking for us; I just want to be sure we don’t forget how to think all together. Of course, not all technology does away with thinking, and therein lies a potential compromise. Before cheap electronic calculator became commonplace, students used the slide rule. And before the slide rule there was the abacus. To benefit from the technology of these calculators, however, students still had to think. To use an abacus, you had to keep in mind the number system; to use a slide rule you had to estimate and think in terms of logarithms and decimal places. For students who want to avoid “mindless” computations, I wholeheartedly recommend allowing the use of either of these humble yet effective anachronisms....

...of Rough
Set in Soft Set:
A Topological Approach
Tutut Herawan, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia
ABSTRACT
In this paper, the author presents the concept of topological space that must be used to show a relation between rough set and soft set. There are two main results presented; firstly, a construction of a quasi-discrete
topology using indiscernibility (equivalence) relation in rough set theory is described. Secondly, the paper
describes that a “general” topology is a special case of soft set. Hence, it is concluded that every rough set
can be considered as a soft set.
Keywords:
Indiscernibility Relation, Quasi Discrete, Rough Set Theory, Soft Set Theory, Topological
Space
1. INTRODUCTION
The problem of imprecise knowledge has been
tackled for a long time by mathematicians. Recently it became also a crucial issue for computer
scientists, particularly in the area of artificial
intelligence. There are many approaches to the
problem of how to understand and manipulate
imprecise knowledge. The most successful one
is, no doubt, the fuzzy set theory proposed by
Zadeh (1965). The basic tools of the theory are
possibility measures. There is extensive literature on fuzzy logic with also discusses some of
the problem with this theory. The basic problem
of fuzzy set theory is the...

...-------------------------------------------------
Set (mathematics)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about what mathematicians call "intuitive" or "naive" set theory. For a more detailed account, see Naive set theory. For a rigorous modern axiomatic treatment of sets, see Set theory.
An example of a Venn diagram
The intersection of two sets is made up with the objects contained in both sets
In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right. For example, the numbers 2, 4, and 6 are distinct objects when considered separately, but when they are considered collectively they form a single set of size three, written {2,4,6}. Sets are one of the most fundamental concepts in mathematics. Developed at the end of the 19th century, set theory is now a ubiquitous part of mathematics, and can be used as a foundation from which nearly all of mathematics can be derived. In mathematics education, elementary topics such as Venn diagrams are taught at a young age, while more advanced concepts are taught as part of a university degree.
-------------------------------------------------
Definition[edit]
A set is a well defined collection of objects. The objects that make up a set (also known as the elements or members of a...

...Essay 1
Set And Subset of Assemblages
Devanshi Purohit
Each assemblage is an emergent entity which can combine with others to produce ever larger assemblages; both assemblages and their component parts are thus characterized by reciprocal relations of exteriority (Parr, 2005). This statement poses a question that whether it can be considered that each assemblage is made up of smaller assemblages as well as there is a larger universal assemblage that each assemblage is a part of.
Robert Beauregard's essay, In Search of Assemblages, suggests how assemblage thinking can be one applicable planning approach. "Most importantly, they(assemblages) are also practically useful; if properly constituted, assemblages contain all of the actors(and forces) relevant for the design of a planning intervention." (Beauregard). It can be considered that the city is made of multiple partially localized assemblages built of heterogeneous networks, spaces, and practices. Similarly, assemblage thinking can also be applied to scrutinize complexities in social, political, cultural and spatial systems. Moreover, Actor-Network theory being one of the theoretical perspectives that led to assemblage thinking. This theory suggests the subjectivity of each actor that is the part of an assemblage and that the actions of each actor are dependent of the other actors and factors of the network. Consequently, the same actor may or may not play the same role in different networks....

...representing a specific group or set. This process of visualizing logical relationships was devised by John Venn (1834-1923).
Each Venn diagram begins with a rectangle representing the universal set. Then each set of values in the problem is represented by a circle. Any values that belong to more than one set will be placed in the sections where the circles overlap.
The universal set is often the "type" of values that are solutions to the problem. For example, the universal set could be the set of all integers from -10 to +10, set A the set of positive integers in that universe, set B the set of integers divisible by 5 in that universe, and set C the set of elements -1, - 5, and 6.
Universal Set
The Venn diagram at the left shows two sets A and B that overlap. The universal set is U.
Values that belong to both set A and set B are located in the center region labeled where the circles overlap.
Intersection
This region is called the "intersection" of the two sets.(Intersection, is only where the two sets intersect, or overlap.)
Union
The notation represents the entire region covered by both...

...ties,
because while in earlier years when there was no television, children and parents spent more quality time together, now they are just glued
in front of the television and don't give a lot of time to each other. It can also influence kids in a bad way if they watch the programs full
of violence and crime, but then that can be monitored by the parents and they can see to it that they do not watch anything that influences them negatively.
As I see it, the major disadvantage of television is that it has weakened family bonds.
*** It can cause you to gain weight
It's pretty intuitive that spending the evening parked in front of the T.V. doesn't burn a lot deal of calories.
In fact, sitting quietly in front of the television set burns a paltry 68 calories per hour.
Not exactly a formula for good health and fitness. Combine that with the high calorie snacks most people
consume while watching that suspenseful television sit-com and you can see how watching T.V. can quickly
pack on the pounds. One smart move not many people make is to exercise while they watch television.
If more people parked an exercise bike in front of the T.V. instead of a recliner, the world would be a healthier place.
***It wastes time
Television watchers should keep a log of the hours they choose to sit in front of the "boob tube".
After they experience the shock of realizing how much time they've wasted, they could then make a list of ways to use that...

... but what is most important is that passion be the thing at the beginning.Art is a great motivator for change, and should always be used for promoting action. Art which supports the status quo is ineffective, as it only promotes inaction. It is the responsibility of the artist to create that which communicates a need for something to be done. A participant in art — whether they are the creator or an audience member — should be left changed by their encounter with art, and motivated to go out and do something about it.I believe that theatre is one of the most effective forms of artistic expression. Theatre is highly collaborative, to a degree not seen in many other mediums, requiring many different people with a great variety of skill sets to realize a production. The involvement of the audience is live and immediate, with their presence and feedback providing the opportunity for the same production to be different on every single night. This immersion and involvement of the viewer places them into a state where they are ready to be impacted and changed by the message being communicated through the art.It is my aim to create art which is effective and relevant, and to shun that which supports the status quo and inaction. I will create art that effects the changes I wish to see within the world.Theatre is my chosen medium, although I am not exclusively a theatrical artist. I will work to promote the creation of theatre and to advance the craft of the...