We speak differently in different situations. The way we speak and the choice of words depend on the situation in which the processes of communication is realized. As we are speaking about the functions of all this words in different situations we have to define “functional style”
Under a “function style” we understand language means peculiar to a specific sphear of communication. The basic vocabulary is the central group of the vocabulary, its historical foundation and living core.
Basic vocabulary| Informal| Formal|
begin| start, get started| commence|
continue| go on, get on| proceed|
end| finish, be through, be over| terminate|
child, baby| kid, brat, beam (dial.)| infant, babe (poet.)|
There has been a diversion between formal and informal speech for nearly as long as language has existed, particularly after the advent of written language, which was initially used in correspondence, business and legal proceedings. Aristocrats also adopted more "high-brow" language also as a way of differentiating themselves from commoners, who were more likely to use colloquialisms in their interactions.
Informal vocabulary is used when speaking with friends, relatives, acquaintance.
There are several sub-groups in this group:Colloquial words; slang and dialect words
Colloquialisms serve the dual purposes of efficiency and showing familiarity between the speaker and the listener. For example, modern speakers of English often use contractions, such as "how'd" in "How'd you do it?" as a faster way of articulating a point than using complete words---"How did you do it?" As a way of expressing closeness and familiarity, friends may say "What's up?" rather than "How are you?" or the more formal "How do you do?" Colloquialisms can also be found in changes in vocabulary, such as the use of "fave" for "favorite."
Many linguists differentiate colloquial language from slang and other dialects of a language. Slang is a particular choice of vocabulary and grammar used by a subgroup, such as a certain age group, within a society, unlike colloquial language, which is still considered standard speech and is used by most people within a language group. Still, some colloquialisms may be related to slang. Dialects are separate forms of a related language that is spoken by a group, such as those living a particular region.
A colloquialism is a word, phrase, or paralanguage that is employed in conversational or informal language but not in formal speech or formal writing. Dictionaries often display colloquial words and phrases with the abbreviation colloq. as an identifier. Colloquialisms include words (such as y’al y’l , gonna , and wanna ), phrases (such as old as the hills, raining cats and dogs, and dead as a doornail) and aphorisms (such as There’s more than one way to skin a cat).
Generally, colloquialisms are specific to a geographical region. They are used in "everyday" conversation and, increasingly, through informal online interactions. An example of the regional specificity of colloquialisms is the term used when referring to "soft drinks". In the Upper Midwestern United States and Canada, soft drinks are called "pop", whilst in other areas, notably the Northeastern and far Western United States, they are referred to as "soda". In some areas of Scotland, the term "ginger" is used. Words that have a formal meaning can also have a colloquial meaning. For example, "kid" can mean "young goat" in formal usage and "child" in colloquial usage. An example of a colloquialism and how it migrates to other areas is the Indian phrase, "Please do the needful", meaning, "Please do what is implied and/or expected". As the global workplace expands, this once regional phrase is now being used outside the area in which it originated. Some linguists make a distinction between colloquialisms and "slangisms" (slang words). "Slang refers to informal...