International University of Nursing
Professor A. Duggins
March 26, 2010
SKIN CANCER 2
Most health care providers advise sun-worshippers to protect their skin from the damaging rays of the sun. There are many persons who never listen to this advice. They end up developing skin cancers of the head and neck, eye and on their extremities. Most individuals grew up believing radiation is dangerous and should be avoided at every opportunity. Research data has shown that radiation can have positive results on the treatment of skin cancers. There are several types of radiation therapy used to treat various skin cancers.
According to West (1980), “basal cell is the most common type of skin cancer…and typically forms on the face and neck.” Skin cancer cases were evaluated out of 325 cases 257 patients had been previously treated using radiation therapy. The recurrence rate for Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma was between 7.8 percent and 14.9 percent. West (1980) These control rates were very comparible to the other types of therapies. It is important to rember that esthetics and function are very important. These tests for both afformentioned reasons were very positive.
And should be considered a mode of therapy in the treatment of skin cancer.
Perineural invasion occurs in 2% to 6% of cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck and is associated with midface location, recurrent tumors, high histologic grade, and increasing tumor size. Patients may be asymptomatic with perineural invasion appreciated on pathologic examination of the surgical specimen (incidental) or may present with cranial nerve deficits (clinical). The cranial nerves most commonly involved are the 5th and 7th nerves. Magnetic resonance imaging is obtained to detect and define the extent of perineural invasion; computed tomography is used to detect regional lymph node metastases. Patients with apparently resectable cancers undergo surgery usually followed by postoperative radiotherapy. Patients with incompletely resectable cancers are treated with definitive radiotherapy. The 5-year local control, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates are approximately 87%, 65%, and 50%, respectively, for patients with incidental perineural invasion compared with 55%, 59%, and 55%, respectively, for those with clinical perineural invasion.
A corneal shield is placed between the eyelid and globe to protect the ocular structures, when skin cancer is near the eye. A test was performed to determine if the shield was enough protection for the eye. In order to simulate the real human face a phantom eye was made. A mock up was created to reconstruct the set up that had been used to treat a real patient with basil cell carcinoma of the lower lid. The face was made of solid pieces of water-equivialant epoxy. In the region of the eye the face was milled to the exact shape of a human face. This will give the researcher more specific data to use when treating a real patient. Contemporarily, there is increasing evidence supporting the concomitant use of cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), in addition to high-dose radiotherapy in primary treatment concepts of head and neck cancer . In comparison to conventional chemotherapy, molecularly targeted agents reveal lower haematological toxicity. However, some specific side-effects such as allergic rashes and skin reactions may limit the therapeutic use and compromise the individual patient's compliance. With respect to skin...