This investigation is designed to illustrate the ability of the visual system to compensate for changes in retinal image size with viewing distance,i.e the mechanism of size constancy. The accuracy of this mechanism will be evaluated under a number of different viewing conditions and thereby investigating the various cues for judging distance.

Background
‘Size constancy’ is the perception of an object as having a fixed size, regardless of the change in size of the retinal image & the visual angle which accompanies changes in distances (i.e. as an objects moves into the distance, the retinal image decreases yet the object size remains the same). It is thus possible to accurately judge the size of objects by compensating for these changes in retinal image size.

In order to compensate for such changes, we must be able to judge distances accurately & this is done via several cues. Binocular cues include: stereopsis
convergence
Stereopsis relies on receiving two slightly different views of the world & hence two different retinal images, due to our eyes existing two slightly different positions laterally. This allows for good depth perception, particularly for near vision. Convergence is another binocular cue in which the eyes adduct. The closer the object, the more our eyes converge. Accommodation is accompanied by convergence.

Monocular cues rely on pictorial clues existing within the retinal image. This allows us to perceive a sense of depth inside of a 2-dimensional object, & relies on certain assumption about the way the world is organised. Monocular cues include: linear perspective (texture gradients)

occlusion or interposition
shading or shadows
motion parallax
accommodation
Linear perspective is an example of a size cue. The further away an object is, the smaller the retinal image becomes for example a railways track becomes thinner & thinner as it recedes into the distance (figure 1) By...

...would be within that range.
For example, if you asked a sample of 1000 people in a city which brand of cola they preferred, and 60% said Brand A, you can be very certain that between 40 and 80% of all the people in the city actually do prefer that brand, but you cannot be so sure that between 59 and 61% of the people in the city prefer the brand.
|Calculating the Sample Size | |
|The samplesize, in this case, refers to the number of children to be included in the survey. | |
|Step 1: Base Sample-size Calculation | |
|The appropriate sample size for a population-based survey is determined largely by three factors: (i) the | |
|estimated prevalence of the variable of interest – transportation in this instance, (ii) the desired level of | |
|confidence and (iii) the acceptable margin of error. | |
|For a survey design based on a simple random sample, the sample size required can be calculated according to the| |
|following formula. | |
|Formula: | |
|n=...

...Children’s Shoe Fit Guide
Unfortunately there is no worldwide standard for shoe sizes, which means you may require different sizes of shoe from different manufacturers.
Brands usually have slight variations in size. Some might fit a little bigger while some run smaller.
This is a general guideline for the brands of stylish European children’s shoes we carry. Please call (516) 295-0026 or email for individual questions.
Alternatively, you can trace you child's foot and fax / send it back to us. Our expert fitters will help you find the correct size for the shoe you want.
US SIZE AGE EURO Size METRIC size
4 toddler 12 months 20 13.0 cm
5 toddler 12-18 months 21 14.0 cm
6 toddler 18-24 months 22 14.5 cm
7 toddler 2-2½ years 23 15.0 cm
8 child 2½-3 years 24 15.5 cm
8.5 child 3½-4 years 25 16.3 cm
9 child 4 years 26 17.0 cm
10 child 4½ years 27 18.0 cm
11 child 5 years 28 18.5 cm
12 child 5½ years 29 19.0 cm
12.5 child 6 years 30 19.5 cm
13 child 6½ years 31 20.0 cm
1 child 7 years 32 21.0 cm
2 child 7½ years 33 21.5 cm
3 child 8 years 34 22.0 cm
4 child 35 23.0 cm
5 young adult 36 24.0 cm
5 young lady 36 24.0 cm
6 young adult 37 24.5 cm
6 young lady 37 24.5 cm
7 young adult 38 25.5 cm
7 young lady 38 25.5 cm
8 young adult 39 26.0 cm
8 young lady 39 26.0 cm
6 young man 39 26.0 cm
9 young adult...

...FINAL PROJECT STATISTICS
DENISE CAPALBO
Gender statistics is an area that cuts across traditional fields of statistics to identify, produce and disseminate statistics that reflect the realities of the lives of women and men, and policy issues relating to gender.
Women can still wear men's shoes, but the size they are accustomed to will be labeled differently in the men's sizes. Although the shoe size is related to the length of your foot, thesizes do not follow a direct formula. Subtract 1 1/2 from your size, if you are a size 6. Therefore, your equivalent men's size would be a 4 1/2.
Above is a dot graph showing the female comparison if she was to convert to a male shoe by length. It is a difference in length by a size and a half. This decision by Nyke is not a good company decision because as you can see based on the female to male conversion that the size difference is significantly larger for women due to the difference in foot length determines the size of shoe.
Europe | 35 | 35½ | 36 | 37 | 37½ | 38 | 38½ | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46½ | 48½ | Europe |
Mexico | | | | | | 4.5 | 5 | 5.5 | 6 | 6.5 | 7 | 7.5 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12.5 | Mexico |
Japan | M | 21.5 | 22 | 22.5 | 23 | 23.5 | 24 | 24.5 | 25 | 25.5 | 26 | 26.5 | 27.5 | 28.5 | 29.5 | 30.5 | 31.5 | Japan | M |
| W | 21 | 21.5 | 22 | 22.5 |...

...find the point estimate,
A) 0.839 B) 0.836 C) 0.817 D) 0.833
Find the margin of error for the 95% confidence interval used to estimate the population proportion.
3) n = 186, x = 103
A) 0.0643 B) 0.125 C) 0.00260 D) 0.0714
Find the minimum sample size you should use to assure that your estimate of will be within the required margin of error around the population p.
4) Margin of error: 0.002; confidence level: 93%; and unknown
A) 204,757 B) 410 C) 204,750 D) 405
5) Margin of error: 0.07; confidence level: 95%; from a prior study, is estimated by the
decimal equivalent of 92%.
A) 58 B) 174 C) 51 D) 4
Use the given degree of confidence and sample data to construct a confidence interval for the
population proportion p.
6) When 343 college students are randomly selected and surveyed, it is found that 110 own
a car. Find a 99% confidence interval for the true proportion of all college students who own a car.
A) 0.256 < p < 0.386 B) 0.279 < p < 0.362 C) 0.271 < p < 0.370 D) 0.262 < p < 0.379
Determine whether the given conditions justify using the margin of error E = when
finding a confidence interval estimate of the population mean .
7) The sample size is n = 9, is not known, and the original population is normally distributed.
A) Yes B) No
Use the confidence level and sample data to find the margin of error E.
8) Systolic blood pressures for women aged 18-24: 94% confidence; n =...

...
Title:-
Do children’s shoe sizes get bigger as they get older?
Introduction:-
I will be doing an experiment to investigate whether it is true or not that a child’s shoes size increases as they get older. In order for me to prove this, I need to collect some data, I will ask some of my friends and family who has children and could help me with this experiment by completing the questionnaire. My objective is to find out at the end of this investigation whether my experiment on children's shoe sizes is true or not true.
Aim:-
My aim is to investigate if children’s shoe sizes increases as they age. I will test my hypothesis by completing the experiment; once I get the results from my investigation I can examine them and see if my hypothesis was correct or incorrect.
Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis:-
Hypothesis - As children age their shoes size increases.
Null Hypothesis – As children age their shoes size does not increase.
Method:-
I collected my data straight into a table chart. This was quick and easy and saved me recording the information found twice, as I was able to read it straight from this. I also found the data was easy to understand and I could see the slow increase of the shoe increase with age.
Design:-
I completed the investigation by asking my friends and family who had children if they would help me in this experiment. I found this to be more...

...Mithi
Select any one topic from Part A
Project – Report to be written on both the sides of two ruled sheets (A4 size paper).
Write:- a)Title of project b)Introduction /History c)Observation d) Advantages
e)Recommendations
Part B: Journal 1
Topics
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Festivals in India – Their impact on the environment.
Impact of air pollution on human health.
Natural disaster Management.
Effect of overuse of water by people on ground-water levels
Importance of green surroundings on the well-being of people
Benefit of organic agriculture over chemical intensive agriculture
Effect of biogas usage on household expenses
World Health Organization
1
Part C: Journal 2
Topics
1 Loss of Biodiversity.
2 Green movement and its impact on global warming.
3 Conservation of renewable resources.
4 Causes of extinction of many species( plants and animals)
5 The factors affecting cost of farming
6 Use of sewage water for irrigation
7 Use of solar/wind energy to reduce grid connected electricity
8 Conservation area for Medicinal plants
All topics are compulsory in journal 1 and Journal 2
Each topic must be hand-written on ruled A4 size paper
(on both sides of paper)
Use one A4 size paper for each topic
Write title of each topic
Index page, Project-Report, Journal 1 & Journal 2 must be stapled
together and cover it with brown paper of same size
Write Student’s name, Class, Stream, Division,...

...Calculating Sample Size
Types of Samples
Subjective or Convenience Sample
- Has some possibility of bias
- Cannot usually say it is representative
- Selection made by ease of collection
Simple Random Sample
- No subjective bias
- Equal chance of selection; e.g., select the fifth chart seen on every third day
- Can usually be backed to say it is representative
Systematic Sample
- Is a random sample
- Equal chance of selection due to methodology; e.g., computer-generated list of
random numbers, or every fifth name on a generated list
- Can usually be backed to say it is representative
Stratified Sample
- Breakdown the population into subgroups, then take a random sample from each subset
- Can usually be backed to say it is representative
Sample Size Calculation
The Automated Method
If you know your population size and desired confidence level you may use this Web-based calculator to automatically calculate sample size.
The Manual Calculation Method
To perform sample size calculation manually, you need the following values:
Population Value: Size of the population from which the sample will be selected. (Number of users or number of encounters)
Expected Frequency of the Factor under Study always err toward 50%
Worst Acceptable Frequency
If 50% is the true rate in the population, what is the result farthest from the rate that you would accept in your...

...Probability samples are those that allow all members of the sampling frame an equal opportunity of selection. Probability samples include Simple Random, Systematic, Stratified and Cluster sampling
• Nonprobability samples do not allow all members of the sampling frame an equal opportunity of selection. Nonprobability samples include Convenience, Judgment, Quota and Snowball sampling.
5. Determine sample size (subject of Chapter 13)
6. Develop operational procedures for extracting sample from the population (logic and controls)
7. Executed the operational plan
Sampling error. Random sampling error always exists.
Administrative errors are generally controllable when properly identified and monitored. Results from two samples, drawn from the same population, will have random sampling errors that can be estimated.
Probability sampling methods:
1. Simple random: Selection to the sample is sample size/population size. Select records from table of random numbers.
2. Systematic: Selection to sample is population size/sample size. Then, every nth record is selected.
3. Stratified: Ensures that explanatory (independent variable) characteristics are properly represented in the selected sample.
• Identify classification factor(s)
• Determine proportion in population (need not be balanced, can be disproportionate)
• Divide...